Environment induced modifications of spontaneous quantum emission

Abstract : The control of the spontaneous emission of quantum emitters is of fundamental importance for the development of future quantum technologies, like quantum cryptography or quantum computing. Such applications rely on the manipulation of atoms, molecules, or "artificial" atoms, as elementary sources of light, and on the exploitation of the quantum nature of the emitted light, single photons. With the recent developments in nanofabrication techniques and nanotechnologies, the modification of the dynamics of the spontaneous emission by the environment is being investigated at the level of a few emitters, allowing for unprecedented control and manipulation of the spontaneous emission. In parallel to the experimental efforts, theoretical understanding of the fundamental interaction mechanisms between quantum emitters and their environment also becomes more and more essential. In this thesis, we tackle three different paradigms of the spontaneous emission phenomenon, all dealing with modifications of the spontaneous emission induced the environment. Firstly, we tackle the problem of monitored spontaneous emission, that is how the processus of emission is modified when the emitting system is being frequently monitored by an external observer, and which is closely related to the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics. Secondly, we consider the interaction between quantum emitters and optical resonances supported by nearby nanostructures. Finally, we study the remote interaction between quantum emitters and surfaces engraved with nanostructures which are designed and arranged in specific patterns, so-called metasurfaces. We present and deal with different formalisms to model such different situations, interfacing different fields of physics like quantum optics and nanophotonics. In each of these situations, we illustrate with realistic theoretical predictions how the spontaneous emission is modified: in the first case, how the lifetime of the quantum emitter is altered, in the second case how the frequency of the emitted photon is altered, and in the last situation how the environment may induce quantum coherence in the emitter. For each case, for provide with experimental proposals for future confirmations of these predictions, to bring a better understanding and control over these fundamental processes.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 11, 2019 - 9:46:04 AM
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Emmanuel Lasalle. Environment induced modifications of spontaneous quantum emission. Quantum Physics [quant-ph]. Aix Marseille Université, 2019. English. ⟨tel-02283698⟩

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