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Rupture fragile des liaisons bimétalliques en acier inoxydable dans le haut de la transition fragile-ductile

Abstract : Stainless steel dissimilar metal welds (SS DMW) are widely used within the French nuclear power plants where they connect the main components (pressure vessel, pressurisor, steam generator) made of low-alloy ferritic steel to the primary circuit pipes made of austenitic stainless steel. Because of their heterogeneous microstructure and mechanical properties, these junctions are critical components for the structure integrity and their fracture resistance has to be demonstrated for all the nominal or accidental operating conditions. This PhD work aims at building a model to evaluate the risk of brittle fracture of the SS DMW in the upper shelf of the brittle-to-ductile transition range. The observation of the microstructures around the fusion line revealed a martensitic layer and a fully austenitic zone, which undergo an important carbides precipitation during the post-weld heat treatment and form a narrow hard layer of carburized martensite and austenite. The mechanical behavior of the SS DMW was then characterized at 20°C and -175°C and isotropic elastoplastic constitutive laws were determined for each macro/mesoscopic layer of the weld from tensile tests on crossweld specimens with variable diameters. The mechanical behavior of the narrow hard layer was also studied with micro tensile tests on specimens extracted by FIB micro processing and tested using an in-situ tensile testing device developed during the PhD. Furthermore, fracture toughness tests were carried out on CT specimens in the brittle-to-ductile temperature range and helped identify the MA interface (between martensite and austenite) as the weakest region in the SS DMW because of an intergranular fracture mechanism initiated at the carbides-rich interface. This mechanism was consistently observed for specimens with fatigue precrack fronts in the hard layer. The stress distributions on the MA interface calculated from the FE numerical simulation of these tests were then analysed and a 1D 3 parameters Weibull model based on a threshold stress and a threshold length was identified for the CT specimens. Finally, the effect of thermal ageing on the SS DMW was explored with a thermal ageing treatment of 10000h at 400°C and a hardening of the austenitic layers was measured by tensile tests and was associated to a spinodal decomposition mechanism of the residual ferrite. The fracture mechanisms of the SS DMW were also analysed in the aged state and showed that this hardening caused an increase of the transition temperature associated with the intergranular fracture of the MA interface by about 30°C.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 16, 2019 - 9:37:28 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, July 8, 2020 - 11:10:22 AM


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  • HAL Id : tel-02281734, version 2



Ghassen Ben Salem. Rupture fragile des liaisons bimétalliques en acier inoxydable dans le haut de la transition fragile-ductile. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLC044⟩. ⟨tel-02281734v2⟩



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