Advanced lithography by self-assembly of PS-b-PDMS and associated plasma ething : application to the fabrication of functional graphene nanoribbons arrays

Abstract : The Block copolymers (BCPs) have the particular property of self-assemble into ordered periodical structures. These macromolecules in association with the classic photolithography, is a promising candidate to be used as an alternative technique for the advanced patterning. This way, the downsizing of the integrated circuits can be kept up. BCPs with high chemical incompatibility between their blocks exhibit a high value of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ. The BCP theory predicts periodical features sizes with high-χ; BCPs of only few nanometers.The BCP lithography principe was also used to show the patterning of 2D materials. For exemple, graphene present a real needs of patterning into very narrow nanostructures to open up a bandgap to switch its electrical properties by quantum confinement. A low χN PS-b-PDMS was used to pattern ~ 10 nm features. BCP is spin-coated and annealed directly on graphene. Self-assembly on large surfaces (1 cm²) is achieved in few minutes and the mask is then transferred on graphene by oxygen-based plasma etching, where in a single step will eliminate the PS matrix, oxidized the PDMS cylinders and etch the graphene. Large surfaces of 11nm-width Graphen nanoribbons (GNRs) were fabricated by the self-assembly of PS-b-PDMS. Dry H2 plasma cleaning was also performed to remove organic contaminants appearing during the fabrication steps. Different analysis techniques of carbon such as Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to show the high chemical quality of the GNRs.Electrical characterization of the GNRs such as mobility and the bandgap openingin graphene were measured also to confirm the electronic behavior of the graphene nanoribbons. Values of the order of 150 cm²/V s and 30 meV were measured. The entire procedure was realized under microelectronics clean room requirement, then, the BCP self-assembly processes proposed are scalable and low cost, and is well-suited for integration with existing semiconductor fabrication techniques.The lithographical procedure developed in this investigation could also be generalized to fabricate different graphene nanostructures such as graphene nanomeshes or quantum dots that could be envisaged for other applications in functional devices. GNRs on large surfaces are expect to find a broad ranges of applications, in the fields of electrochemical and bioanalysis.
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Javier Arias Zapata. Advanced lithography by self-assembly of PS-b-PDMS and associated plasma ething : application to the fabrication of functional graphene nanoribbons arrays. Micro and nanotechnologies/Microelectronics. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAT011⟩. ⟨tel-02281286⟩

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