Quand la ville ne dort pas : s'approprier l'espace-temps hypercentral nocturne par et autour de l'usage récréatif. Les exemples de Caen et Rennes. (Pour une approche aussi sonore des rapports sociaux de proximité)

Abstract : Through the examples of Caen and Rennes (France) and the night-time recreational prism, this PHD aims at analysing contemporary city, in a morphogenetic, polemological and dimensional way. Through both spatialised and temporalised qualitative (interviews, speech analysis, press review, archives ans institutional documents) and quantitative (especially statistical approach of censuses and questionnaires) methods, we focus on the mobilisations of night owls, bar owners, residents and institutions who try to appropriate city-center at night. In a first section, the importance of recreational use in the city centers of Caen and Rennes is depicted. As a central attribute of young persons, recreational (more than festive in fact) customs are polarised by a central and abundant commercial offer. Around and sometimes very closely, residents, who are mostly young night owls once they have come back home, but also populations who are much more socially integrated (professionaly, parentally and residentially), have to live with those customs. Therefore, a tension appears between both récrational and biological reproductive uses of city centers at night. A second section highlights the fact that both night owls and bars owners are mobilised through recreational use, the firsts by socialising one another in bars and night clubs which are duly selected ; the seconds by polarising but also managing the firsts. Sometimes, these daily mobilisations become both political and collective ones, the moment recreational and nocturnal appropriation of streets on one hand, commercial activity on the other hand, are threatened. The third section develops the link between recreational and nocturnal customs and residential mobilisations. The social division of urban centers once established, several characteristics have been highlighted so that to explain sound perceptions, such as acoustic and exposure ones, but also sociological ones. Perhaps more than the fists, the latest explains the differents ways of perceiving recreational and nocturnal sounds, the evolution throughout « cycles of life » – that is to say professional insertion and above all experience and property – being most important. This cognitive division goes with an actional one : on one hand, those who are still linked with recreational and nocturnal customs mainly get used to the noise or confront those who are responsible for their sound annoyance (mostly neighbours) ; on the other hand, those who are gradually distancing themselves from these customs do not hesitate to resort to institutions or even to engage in collective action. Eventually, a fourth section deals with the way institutions govern the night owls, the bar owners and the residents who are mobilised. After the administrative and police repression of the night owls but also the bar owners during the 2000’s in Rennes and even in Caen, after the contractualisation with the latests and the health handling of the firsts around 2010, a rupture have occurred these last few years. With increasing budgetary restrictions, bar owners seem to be considered today by the institutions more as order and health auxiliaries useful so as to restrain night owls’ deviance than as persons responsible for it. Seldom listened by institutions, residents who are mobilised are also being neutralised throughout dedicated devices. On the whole, this research shows the transition from fordist economy which considers night time as a mean to reproduce diurnal workforce to post-fordist one, in which 24/7 city has also to fulfil cognitive capitalism needs.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 9, 2019 - 10:37:42 AM
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Etienne Walker. Quand la ville ne dort pas : s'approprier l'espace-temps hypercentral nocturne par et autour de l'usage récréatif. Les exemples de Caen et Rennes. (Pour une approche aussi sonore des rapports sociaux de proximité). Géographie. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMC032⟩. ⟨tel-02280750v2⟩

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