La négociation en droit des entreprises en difficulté

Abstract : At first glance, it may seem surprising to focus on negotiation in insolvency law since this branch of law is marked by the seal of public order. However, the logic of dialogue between the debtor and his creditors is increasingly observed in most of the procedures offered to the debtor to deal with his difficulties. The legislator's perspectives have changed: it is no longer just a question of sanctioning, but more of preventing difficulties and safeguarding companies. This evolution has given rise to the desire to understand the current phenomenon of negotiation in its effects on the law of companies in difficulty. The aim was to determine, in the texts, the reality of the negotiations and, as a counterpoint, the real share of the judge's power. The promotion of the negotiation process in dealing with business difficulties has upset, on the one hand, the balances within the procedures. Negotiations appear to have been strengthened in procedures that were originally judicial and collective and in which unilateralism was prevalent. Conversely, mutual agreement procedures are more judicial in nature than before. As a result, the dividing line between amicable and judicial proceedings is less clear than in the past. The development of negotiation has also upset the balances between the players: at the heart of the search for a solution to the company's difficulties, the debtor and his creditors are placed at the forefront of the processing. The changes brought about by the integration of negotiation into the law of companies in difficulty are also changing the values traditionally attached to the subject. Traditional principles such as the equality of creditors are reduced. However, these changes offer above all a more balanced and attractive law. If the judge's traditional office seems to be distorted, his power is strengthened accordingly. The negotiation process requires the establishment of a strict legal framework and significant judicial control to ensure that the fundamental rights of the parties are guaranteed. Above all, the debtor and his creditors will more easily accept a solution in their control. This development shows that the law is more based on the idea of trust. Thus, because of the many advantages known to it, the amicable way could still play its charms with the French legislator.
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Marie Koehl. La négociation en droit des entreprises en difficulté. Droit. Université de Nanterre - Paris X, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PA100016⟩. ⟨tel-02280411⟩

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