Pauvreté des ménages et pauvreté de l'école face aux objectifs de l'éducation primaire universelle : étude de cas de deux villages et deux écoles publiques des Hautes Terres Malgaches

Abstract : Madagascar is one of the poorest country in the world regarding its GPD per capita. Most of its population lives under the poverty line. The government is committed in the education for all plan since 1990. However, the quality of education is still low. In 2012, only 68.8% of the children achieved the primary school cycle, there are high repetition rates and few students access to the secondary school cycle. Most of international institution and NGO's oppose child labor and schooling. Child labor remains important, in 2010, 21% of the children aged from 5 to 17 years old work. We have conducted a survey about the households living in the rural zones. Most of them live from subsistence farming activities. Their children must participate to the domestic chores and economic activities and combine school at the same time. This work aims to understand the process of schooling and child work in a rural zone. We have collected quantitative data on 246 household and we made an ethnography in a primary state school for 14 months. Then, we have conducted semi-structured interviews with mothers, teachers and children aged from 8 to 14 years old. The quantitative data helped to analyze the relationship between the household demographic structures and the children school attainment. The ethnography shown the impact of a weak quality of education on the children learning process and on the school demand. The interviews conducted with the children shown how their perception of work and schooling and their aspiration could influence the reproduction of their economic and social position. To conclude, we question how the primary education for all can be reached when most of the household live in poor life conditions and the education sector suffers from a lack of funds. Can the school system stop the transmission of social and economic inequalities and break the poverty cycle?
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Antonia Verger. Pauvreté des ménages et pauvreté de l'école face aux objectifs de l'éducation primaire universelle : étude de cas de deux villages et deux écoles publiques des Hautes Terres Malgaches. Education. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB209⟩. ⟨tel-02280131⟩

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