Formation et déplacement de gouttes confinées : Instabilités et dynamiques

Abstract : Biphasic flows in porous media generally lead to the emulsification of one phase into the other. This may be due to several phenomena, such as viscous fingering or pure capillary instabilities. In this experimental thesis, we study a particular emulsifying phenomenon of oil in a model porous medium, as well as the transport of the produced droplets in confined regions. In the first part of the manuscript, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is revisited in a wedge formed between two centimetric glass plates. The gradient of confinement leads to a capillary force not present in the canonical Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This new force can stabilize liquid layer above air submitted to gravity. The threshold of the instability, the characteristic wavelength and the growth rate are captured by a linear stability analysis of the interface. This characterization of the confinement-induced capillary force drove us to the study of a pure capillary instability occurring when a wetting liquid migrates toward the most confined regions of a wedge, initially filled with a less wetting liquid. The gradient of confinement generates a destabilizing force, leading to the complete inversion of the position of both phases. The less wetting liquid is fully emulsified and the produced droplets are convected towards the less confined regions. A linear stability analysis of the interface here again predicts the characteristic size of the droplets. However, the measured growth rates are not in agreement with the model, based on the Darcy law. This suggests a localization of viscous dissipation in the contact lines displaced during the development of the instability. Another source of viscous dissipation can be in the deposited lubrication films. Those "non-Darcian" dynamics motivated the second part of this thesis, which focuses on the motion of very viscous and non-wetting droplets confined in water. In this configuration, the lubrication film of water between the drop and the substrate ensures the localization of viscous dissipation in those films of low viscosity. This favors the extremely high mobility of the droplets. We also show that wall roughness may induce a thinning of these lubrication films. We shed light on the intricate coupling between viscous friction at the front of the drop and in its bulk. In a last part of this work, we study the capillary instability occurring when a binary droplet of water and alcohol is deposited at the surface of a vegetable oil bath. The dominant evaporation of alcohol at the surface of the drop induces local variations of surface tension. Interfacial Marangoni flows are thus observed, leading to the spectacular destabilization of the spreading droplet
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Ludovic Keiser. Formation et déplacement de gouttes confinées : Instabilités et dynamiques. Physique [physics]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCC080⟩. ⟨tel-02280106⟩

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