Mechanisms of non-centrosomal MTOC formation at the nucleus in muscle cells

Abstract : The accurate position of the nucleus during skeletal muscle formation seems to be important for muscle function, and defects have been associated with numerous muscle diseases. Nuclear positioning requires microtubules (MTs) which are reorganized from the centrosome in proliferating myoblasts to the nuclear envelope (NE) in differentiated myotubes. This dramatic MT reorganization is accompanied by a redistribution of proteins from the centrosome to the NE which thus takes over the function as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) during myogenic differentiation. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we identified Nesprin-1 and Sun1/2, outer and inner nuclear membrane proteins, respectively, to be involved in the recruitment of MTOC function to the NE. Nesprin-1 or Sun1/2 deficient cells displayed mislocalization of centrosomal proteins to the cytoplasm and failed to regrow MTs from the NE. Moreover, the muscle-specific isoform of Nesprin-1, namely Nesprin-1alpha, was shown to be highly associated with the centrosomal proteins Akap450, Pericentrin and Pcm1 in C2C12 myotubes and to be sufficient to rescue the observed defects in Nesprin-1 depleted cells. Among the centrosomal proteins localizing at the NE during myogenic differentiation, solely Akap450 seemed to be required for MT nucleation. Akap450-Nesprin-1alpha-mediated MT nucleation from the NE was demonstrated to play an important role in nuclear positioning during myotube formation. These findings strengthen our understanding on how defects in MTOC formation at the NE can link to nuclear positioning defects in muscular dystrophies.
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Petra Gimpel. Mechanisms of non-centrosomal MTOC formation at the nucleus in muscle cells. Cellular Biology. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI; Freie Universität (Berlin). Fachbereich Biologie, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066442⟩. ⟨tel-02280080⟩

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