Développement d'hydrolysats destinés à la formulation d'aliments pour l'aquaculture : normalisation structurale et optimisation fonctionnelle

Abstract : Aquaculture is a key sector for supporting and improving the food security worldwide. The global production of farmedfish and shrimp has grown dramatically over the past decades and now contributes to half of the aquatic productsintended for human consumption. Aquaculture will require feeds to support its growth but availability of some raw materialssuch as fish meal are limited. The use of fish meal in aquafeed has particularly declined in favor of plant proteinsources to fit with economic and environmental constraints. But plant proteins do not meet perfectly the nutritionalrequirements of carnivorous fish and their utilization often results in lower growth and feed performances. Proteinhydrolysates manufactured from fishing and aquaculture co-products are ingredients with a high palatable, nutritionaland bioactive potential. They are rich in hydrolytic peptides and free amino acids, but they are complex mixtureswhose composition could vary according to raw material origin and hydrolysis parameters. During this PhD study, wedeveloped and implemented tools to further characterize the structure and functional properties hydrolysates. On afirst step, we developed a fast methodological tool based on sample standardization, followed by the determination ofthe abundance and richness of peptides using size exclusion chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled toelectro-spray mass spectrometry, respectively. We merged the results into a 2D diagram that made it easy to classifyand compare hydrolysates having different galenic, origin and process. We also developed a tool on isolated intestinefrom European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax ) to rank protein hydrolysates according to their myotropic property.We demonstrated that shrimp hydrolysate showed a higher myotropic activity than fish hydrolysates and that thisactivity was carried by a unique pentapeptide KNPEQ produced by the enzymatic clivage of haemocyanin during thehydrolysis process applied on shrimp co-products. On a second step, a 65-day feeding trial was conducted in Europeanseabass fed a low fish meal diet supplemented with protein hydrolysates of different origin, and coupled to a studyof the intestine and liver transcriptomic response (Illumina RNA sequencing). It has been shown that protein hydrolysatesincluded in a low fish meal diet (5%) restored growth performances to the same level than a diet containing20% of fishmeal, and that they exhibited very specific functional properties. These results showed that a mixture oftwo hydrolysates impacted more deeply the intestine and liver transcriptomes than hydrolysate tested alone. ThisphD study confirmed that protein hydrolysates are very interesting candidates for formulating low fish meal feed andoffer new tools for characterizing such complex ingredients, which will be useful to optimize and standardize proteinhydrolysate while understanding their mechanisms of action in fish.
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Alexandre Leduc. Développement d'hydrolysats destinés à la formulation d'aliments pour l'aquaculture : normalisation structurale et optimisation fonctionnelle. Alimentation et Nutrition. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMC290⟩. ⟨tel-02279564⟩

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