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Intégration d’un deuxième niveau de guidage photonique par dépôt de SiN au-dessus du SOI traditionnel

Abstract : Based on CMOS industry's mature manufacturing processes and large-scale production, silicon photonics technology is a potential solution for inexpensive high-speed optical links for data centers. About ten years ago, a first step was taken with the realization, at an industrial scale, of transmitters/receivers with data rates up to 100Gb/s. However, it seems that even higher speeds (typically 200 or 400Gb/s) will soon be needed. Unfortunately, the technical limitations of this first generation of photonic circuits suggest that it will be difficult to make efficient multiplexers (MUX / DEMUX), which form the basis of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) solutions designed to meet this new bandwidth demand. Moreover, a diversification of the applications of integrated photonics is ongoing for a few years, which also seems difficult to satisfy given the performance of current technology. The thesis work presented in this manuscript yielded from this context. The studied solution is based on the integration of a second optical layer whose properties are complementary to those of the silicon circuit. This forms an integrated optical platform which can be efficient whatever the function to be performed. A monolithic integration scheme is chosen leveraging the low cost and manufacturing capability of CMOS industry. Silicon nitride (SiN), with a reduced index contrast and a low thermo-optical coefficient, is an interesting candidate for the realization of this second photonic circuit. Indeed, those properties are perfectly complementary to the silicon ones, and particularly adapted to the realization of MUX/DEMUX. Moreover, SiN is a well-known material of CMOS electronics. The first objective of this thesis was to develop the integration scheme of the second optical circuit within ST Microelectronics PIC50G photonic technology. Once all the fabrication steps validated, the development of photonic devices could begin. It starts with several kinds of optical waveguides, among which rib-type demonstrated propagation losses below 0.2dB/cm at 1300nm, but also various elementary components: transitions between waveguides, fiber/chip coupler, waveguide termination, parasitic signals filters and power splitters/combiners. A statistic characterization of the optical transition between Si and SiN circuits reveal insertion losses below 0,3dB from 1270nm to 1330nm, confirming the stability of this critical device. Special attention was paid to the polarization management within the SiN circuit. Polarization splitters and rotators were developed showing comparable performances with Si devices state of the art. An exhaustive study about the realization of SiN MUX/DEMUX was also carried out. Arrayed waveguide gratings especially show good performances: thermal drift < 12pm/°C, low polarization sensitivity, insertion loss <1dB, crosstalk level < -30dB, up to twelve channels, -1dB bandwidth >11nm. To conclude this work, a four channel WDM transmitter/receiver was designed in order to demonstrate the interest of this hybrid Si/SiN platform, its currently waiting for characterization. Finally, a study of the nonlinear properties of SiN demonstrated the generation of a third harmonic optical signal from UV to visible and the generation of a supercontinuum spanning from 425nm to 1660nm, paving the way to new applications.
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Submitted on : Thursday, September 5, 2019 - 11:28:09 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02279353, version 1



Sylvain Guerber. Intégration d’un deuxième niveau de guidage photonique par dépôt de SiN au-dessus du SOI traditionnel. Optique / photonique. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS120⟩. ⟨tel-02279353⟩



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