La révolution éducative au Chili : histoire de la construction d'un enjeu public (1973-2010)

Abstract : In the last four decades, Chile's education system has experienced a deep transformation, a neoliberal revolution. Since the dictatorship (1973-1990), an education market developed in the different levels of education. After the restoration of democracy in 1990 and during the following two decades government, led by a centre-left coalition, the education market was consolidated with an active engagement of the State. This period introduced multiple adjustments to the model, which ultimately developed an education system of hybrid morphology. Education stood out progressively as a major public issue and, in 2011, a social crisis became unavoidable. The questioning of the educational architecture reveals the fissures of the Chilean society concerning the predominance of neoliberal regulations. This event motivated a phase of revision, discussion, and proposition around another form of thinking education. This thesis traces the course of the educational policies implemented since the dictatorial irruption until 2010 when 20 years of democratic recovery under the direction of the same conglomerate, the Concertación, ends. The objective of this study is to understand the evolution of this issue, in the interface between the institutional administration, political parties, and civil society. This overview will allow us to grasp the maze of policy making and to understand how the educational disagreements arise. This analytical perspective consists in a socio-historical reconstruction of the educational policy, which triangulates the analysis of historical texts, legislative texts, and interviews with both political and administrative actors. This analytical lens will enable us to understand how education is the cornerstone of the modernization process in Chile. This is characterized by significant and undeniable advances in development, especially those concerning the educational expansion at all levels. The State is increasingly involved in education, from a role of arbitrator and supervisor of the market functioning, reinforcing and increasing the complexity of the neoliberal structure. Thus, a new order emerges, in which the education becomes a private good under the protection of a generalized competition and a culture of evaluation. This model clashes with society's increasing demands for democratization of education. The education system deploys strategies of individual positioning that legitimize and reinforce the privatization of education, while society denounces the systemic school segregation while, on the other side.
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Nathalie Slachevsky Aguilera. La révolution éducative au Chili : histoire de la construction d'un enjeu public (1973-2010). Sociologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB203⟩. ⟨tel-02278817⟩

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