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Variations spatio-temporelles de la structure taxonomique et la compétition alimentaire des poissons du lac Tonlé Sap, Cambodge

Abstract : The Tonle Sap Lake (TSL), Cambodia, is a flood-pulse system. It is the largest natural lake in South- East Asia and constitutes one of the largest fisheries over the world, supporting the livelihood 2.5 million peoples. Seasonal change in annual hydrological cycle appears to have influence on fish community structure, both spatial and temporal variation, particularly on feeding behavior of TSL's fishes. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the annual flood-pulse of the TSL. Such modifications are expected to have strong impacts on fish biodiversity, abundance, reduced habitat and food availability within the lake. To invest how TSL's fish community structure responds to the seasonal change, how they shift their diet across hydrological cycles and feeding competing for food resource: First, we aim to characterize the spatio-temporal variations of fish taxonomic composition and to highlights the underlying determinants of these variations. For this purpose, we estimated beta diversity as the total variance of the site-by-species community matrix and partitioned it into Local Contribution to Beta Diversity (LCBD) and Species Contribution to Beta Diversity (SCBD). We then performed multiple linear regressions to determine whether species richness, species abundances and water level explained the temporal variation in the contribution of site and species to beta diversity. Our results indicate strong temporal variation of beta diversity due to differential contributions of sites and species to the spatial variation of fish taxonomic composition. We further found that the direction, the shape and the relative effect of species richness, abundances and water level on temporal variation in LCBD and SCBD values greatly varied among sites, thus suggesting spatial variation in the processes leading to temporal variation in community composition. Overall, our results suggest that fish taxonomic composition is not homogeneously distributed over space and time and is likely to be impacted in the future if the flood-pulse dynamic of the system is altered by human activities. Second, we aim to investigate the temporal pattern of the most occurrence and abundance species and how their co-occurrence pattern across hydrological cycles. We found that occurrence and abundance patterns were temporally varied at all water level seasons. Strong temporal variation in species occurrence was occurred with visiting species such as Labiobarbus leptocheilus and Poropuntius deauratus while water level starts to fill into the TSL. We further observed that the abundance of 17 species was strongly varied while other 22 species (mainly TSL's residential species) were stable within the year. Positive species co-occurrence pattern was generally higher than negative species co-occurrence at all water level seasons. Highest positive co-occurrence patterns were found during the period of decrease and low water level seasons while fishes are migrating from flooded areas, competing for resource and habitats during low water season. Study on temporal distribution and species co-occurrence of fish and how community responds to the seasonal change in hydrological cycles provides critical information for fisheries management and conservation in the Tonle Sap Lake (TSL) as well as maintaining fish biodiversity in the Mekong system. Third, the implications of seasonality on food web structure have been notoriously understudied in empirical ecology, particularly in TSL's system. The current study, we focus on seasonal changes in one key attribute of a food web, vertical trophic position of consumers.
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Heng Kong. Variations spatio-temporelles de la structure taxonomique et la compétition alimentaire des poissons du lac Tonlé Sap, Cambodge. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30122⟩. ⟨tel-02277574⟩



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