Modélisation mathématique des dynamiques hôtes-parasites ; de l’écologie parasitaire à l’écologie du génome

Abstract : This document is dedicated to the dynamic modeling of host-parasite interactions. It is about two distant biological models, who are studied using standard epidemiological models built from dynamic compartmental models. The first contribution is the implementation of a 'micro-parasites' model to study the transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of American trypanosomiasis (or 'Chagas' disease), within a host community of synanthropic and domestic animals. The analysis of the mathematical model shows for the first time in this biological system a dilution effect associated with avian hosts, as well as the possibility of reducing the transmission to humans by modifying the composition of the domestic host communities. The second contribution deals with the dynamics of the "genomic parasites" that are the transposable elements. Using the analogies between genomics and ecology concepts proposed by the "Genome Ecology" approach, it was possible to adapt models developed for 'macro-parasites' to the dynamics of transposable elements of class 1, retro-transposons. The analysis of these models makes it possible toformulate hypotheses on the relative importance of the host demography, the distribution of the number of copies between individuals and the molecular mechanisms of silencing of these elements, on their persistence within the population of hosts reproducing asexually.
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Alheli Flores Ferrer. Modélisation mathématique des dynamiques hôtes-parasites ; de l’écologie parasitaire à l’écologie du génome. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Perpignan, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PERP0010⟩. ⟨tel-02277509⟩

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