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Repenser la responsabilité lors de la mondialisation : vers une conception de la méta-responsabilité

Abstract : The fields of philosophy and political theory have met major changes in the past 40 years. On of them is quite interesting; there has been a change of the national point of view, which paradigm could be the rawlsian model, to a non-national one. Many thinkers have thought about a set of phenomenons considered as new such as free trade agreements and global economy, supra and transnational institutions and corporations, immigration and border control etc. The thinkers working on global justice seem to adresse two sets of different but related questions. The first ones concern global justice: why and to which extend is global order just or unjust? What is a just global order? The second set is, in a sense a corollary of the first and concerns responsibility: who is to be blamed or praised for the global order? Are citizens responsible for the global order? Who should address its possible unjust consequences? Facing globalization and international and transnational political and economical institutions those questions become legitimate and necessary: am I responsible for the sweat shop workers that produced the clothes I bought at Auchan or for badly payed coffee-grower when I buy a capuccino at Starbucks? Are citizens responsible for the free-trade agreements that are signed by there governments? These questions concerning the individual responsibility in the age of globalization will be the object of these research. We will question the responsibility of an agent when he is part of a complex causal chain, when contributes to structural injustice. Thus, it is not only about a causal chain but about connexions that are the result of changes in the modes of production and consumption, or the competition on a global market. Moreover, individual responsibility, in this context, cannot be thought solely as individual but the responsibility of individuals qua citizen, this is political responsibility. It is certainly individual but since agents and their actions are also determined by the political communities to which they belong or that represent them, this responsibility must be thought as political and not only as moral. Thus, globalization invite us to rethink individual responsibility in order to make sense of the the moral and political intuitions the guide the field of global justice. In order to do so, we will see, first, the way in which some theories of global justice try to tackle this challenge. Thanks to this we will determine thy hypothesis that will guide us; the idea that in the context of globalization an agent can be responsible, with others, for the reasons that make him non-responsible, that is, meta-responsible. On a second moment we will try to formulate a model of individual responsibility and to understand its conditions of attributability. Subsequently we will try to formulate a way to conceive political responsibility. Thanks to this two elements, individual responsibility and political responsibility we will be finally able to formulate a conception of meta-responsibility as a way to think agency when it is entwined by globalization.
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José Álvarez Sánchez. Repenser la responsabilité lors de la mondialisation : vers une conception de la méta-responsabilité. Philosophie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB201⟩. ⟨tel-02277487⟩



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