Modélisation des stratégies de reperfusion de l’infarctus du myocarde

Carlos H. El Khoury 1, 2
2 Evaluation et modélisation des effets thérapeutiques
Département biostatistiques et modélisation pour la santé et l'environnement [LBBE]
Abstract : Objective. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) annually affects more than 120 000 people in France. We studied the management of ST elevation MI (STEMI). Two reperfusion strategies are available: intravenous thrombolysis (TL) and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of these strategies in the acute phase of myocardial infarction through the establishment of an emergency network based on a shared protocol with interventional cardiology. Methods. We established a regional emergency cardiovascular network (RESCUe Network) that covers a population of 3 million inhabitants across five administrative counties, including urban and rural territories. All nineteen MICUs, thirty seven emergency departments and 10 catheterization laboratories participate in the network. We edited regularly updated guidelines, set up a doctors’ training program and implemented an evaluation registry. Results. We setup the AGIR-2 study, a multicenter, controlled, randomized study, to explore prehospital high-dose tirofiban in patients undergoing PPCI. Three hundred and twenty patients with STEMI were included over a period of 12 months. All of them received 250 mg of aspirin, 600 mg of clopidogrel and 60 IU/kg bolus of high molecular weight heparin before admission to the catheterization laboratory. If prehospital initiation of high-dose bolus of tirofiban did not improve outcome, AGIR-2 study reinforced the collaborative network between emergency medicine and interventional cardiology. Since then, PPCI has gradually become the reference reperfusion strategy for STEMI in our network. Using data from our registry, we studied STEMI patients treated in mobile intensive care units (MICUs) between 2009 and 2013. Among 2418 patients, 2119 (87.6%) underwent PPCI and 299 (12.4%) prehospital TL (94.0% of whom went on to undergo PPCI). Use of PPCI increased from 78.4% in 2009 to 95.9% in 2013 (Ptrend<0.001). Median delays included: first medical contact (FMC)–PCI centre 48 min, FMC–balloon inflation 94 min, and PCI centre– balloon inflation 43 min. Times from symptom onset to FMC and FMC to TL remained stable during 2009 to 2013, but times from symptom onset to first balloon inflation and FMC to PCI centre to first balloon inflation decreased (P<0.001). In total, 2146 (89.2%) had an FMC–PCI centre delay ≤90 min with PPCI use up to 97.7% in 2013 in accordance with guidelines. Inhospital (4–6%) and 30-day (6–8%) mortalities remained stable from 2009 to 2013. Finally, we sought to assess the effect of strict adherence to current international guidelines on 1-year all-cause mortality in a prospective cohort of patients with STEMI. After multivariable adjustment, the association between the optimal therapy (OT) group (Betablockers, Antiplatelet agents, Statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] Inhibitors, and Correction of all risk factors) and survival remained significant, with a hazard ratio of 0.12 (95% CI 0.07–0.22; P<0.001). Of the 5161 patients discharged alive, 2991 (58%) were prescribed OT. Patients characteristics in the under treatment (UT) group were worse than those in the OT group because of contraindications to optimal treatment (renal failure, bleeding risk). Conclusion. The establishment of an emergency network in our area resulted in an increased use of PPCI in accordance with ESC guidelines with no effect on early mortality. Reduction of one year mortality was observed in patients who received optimal secondary prevention treatment
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Carlos H. El Khoury. Modélisation des stratégies de reperfusion de l’infarctus du myocarde. Physiologie [q-bio.TO]. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSE1026⟩. ⟨tel-02277342⟩

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