Study of radiative properties : application to fast determination of temperature and iron concentration for MAG-P Arc (Ar-CO2-Fe mixtures) and to estimation of photobiological hazards for argon GTAW Arc

Abstract : This PhD thesis introduces a method that allows the fast determination of temperature and iron concentration for MAG-P Arc. The MAG-P Arc is in fact [Ar-CO2]-Fe mixtures, with a constant molar ratio between Ar and CO2 [82%Ar-18%CO2]. In a second time, this thesis presents a study of the optical radiation associated to photobiological hazards for argon GTAW Arc. In chapter 1, the background and motivation of this work is introduced. The previous works published in this field are reviewed. In chapter 2, the equilibrium compositions are calculated firstly using the minimization of Gibbs free energy. Then the radiative properties of [Ar-CO2]-Fe plasmas are obtained in the frame of the net emission coefficient (NEC) approach, using the accurate "line by line" method. All significant radiative contribution mechanisms are taken into account in the calculation. This study will constitute a groundwork to build the diagnostic method that allows determination of temperature and iron concentration profiles in welding arc. In chapter 3, spectroscopic investigation of the LTE hypothesis across the MAG-P Arc is made. Excitation temperature is obtained with Boltzmann plot method while iron and argon lines Stark broadening measurements are used to get electron temperature and electron density. LTE hypothesis validity across the arc is discussed considering the agreement between the two temperatures, the electron density and iron content. Results show supporting evidence for the main part of the plasma, along radial and axial directions. Discrepancies occur only at the fringe of the arc, where the two temperatures differ by more than 2000 K. In chapter 4, a method allowing a fast determination of space- and time-resolved plasma temperature and iron concentration in MAG arcs during the high-current phase is introduced. This method consists in measuring the plasma spectral radiation of the arc with iron vapours using a high-speed camera filtered by narrow band filters in the spectral intervals of 570-590 nm and 606-627 nm respectively; calculating theoretically the dependence of the absolute emissivity e570-590 nm and relative emissivity e570-590 nm/e607-627 nm versus the plasma temperature and the iron concentration. This method has also been validated for a layer of plasma by adopting other existing diagnostics such as Stark broadening, which demonstrates the effectiveness of this new method. In chapter 5, a theoretical investigation of the UV (180-400 nm), UVA (315-400 nm) and blue light (300-700 nm) radiation associated with the photobiological hazards to workers for argon GTAW arcs is presented. The radiative properties of argon plasma are calculated for the three spectral regions, and a two-dimensional model of a GTAW arc is then developed to determine the local emissions in the arc, the total radiation escaping from the arc and corresponding effective irradiances. This study clearly supports the importance of undertaking an effective protection strategy for workers, particularly for skin and eyes, in the welding environment. Finally, a general conculsion is given in chapter 6.
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Fei Wang. Study of radiative properties : application to fast determination of temperature and iron concentration for MAG-P Arc (Ar-CO2-Fe mixtures) and to estimation of photobiological hazards for argon GTAW Arc. Plasmas. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30121⟩. ⟨tel-02277181⟩

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