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P. and A. , Résumé : Les Ranunculales sont un ordre d'angiospermes d'environ 4500 espèces, incluant des plantes communes comme les boutons d'or et les coquelicots. Leurs fleurs sont très diversifiées et ont piqué l'intérêt des botanistes depuis des décennies. Les sept familles de l'ordre sont faciles à reconnaître sur le terrain, mais paradoxalement, certaines familles n'ont pas de synapomorphies et ont des états ancestraux peu clairs, comme les Ranunculaceae (~ 2500 espèces). Cette diversité florale peut être liée à la pollinisation et des innovations ont pu être guidées par cette interaction. De plus, les plantes de ce groupe produisent une grande variété de composés secondaires, Mots-clefs : évolution florale, morphologie, fleurs ancestrales

, Ici nous utilisons des méthodes analytiques modernes pour comprendre les patrons d'évolution expliquant la distribution actuelle de la diversité et l'évolution des fleurs et des toxines de Ranunculales. Un nouveau cadre phylogénétique synthétique a été produit avec des séquences publiées de 144 espèces, Ces substances pourraient jouer un rôle dans la défense contre les herbivores. Les caractères floraux et chimiques sont donc de bons candidats pour produire des hypothèses adaptatives

M. Chains, Les patrons d'évolution des toxines montrent de la variabilité, certaines apparaissant et disparaissant aléatoirement (comme les saponines), d'autres étant des synapomorphies bien soutenues de certains clades (comme les diterpènes de type aconitine pour la tribu des Delphinieae). Ces résultats offrent une meilleure compréhension de l'histoire naturelle des Ranunculales. En outre, cet ordre est le groupefrère de toutes les autres eudicotylédones, et a donc une position clef pour comprendre l'évolution précoce de ce clade. Ces résultats vont fournir une compréhension plus profonde des changements floraux et phytochimiques qui, Un nouveau scénario d'évolution florale a été produit, où les Ranunculales avaient une fleur ancestrale trimère avec trois cycles de tépales et où les ancêtres des familles ont évolué en perdant ou en différenciant des cycles du périanthe