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Impacts du changement global sur la biodiversité en mer Méditerranée : une approche par modélisation End-to-End

Abstract : Under the combined effects of overexploitation of marine resources and climate change the Mediterranean Sea is gradually becoming a hotspot of global change. Despite a large number of models developed locally or regionally in the Mediterranean Sea, no previous studies have addressed changes in species assemblages at the basin scale with an integrated ecosystem modelling from physics to predators and explicitly representing the multi-species, spatial, and trophic dimensions. This thesis work presents a threefold challenge: (i) implementing such a model of the species richness in the Mediterranean Sea based on life history traits and representing the entire life cycle of interacting species; (ii) projecting the consequences of physical and biogeochemical changes induced by climate change on the spatial distribution of species and on the structure and trophic functioning of the Mediterranean ecosystem; (iii) exploring fisheries management scenarios aiming at rebuilding some stocks of commercial interest in a climate change context. To address these challenges, an end-to-end model, OSMOSE-MED, based on the coupling of a high trophic level OSMOSE model with NEMOMED12 and ECO3M-S physical and biogeochemical models, has been developed. With 100 modelled species, representing nearly 95% of the catches made in the Mediterranean Sea, it is the first trophic model of this type to integrate such a large diversity of species, on such a large spatial scale (the Mediterranean Sea as a whole) and at fine resolution (20x20 km²). According to the greenhouse gas emissions scenario RCP8.5, projections made with the OSMOSE-MED model show an overall increase in biomass and catches of 22% and 7% respectively by the end of the century. However, these increases mask large geographical disparities. The eastern basin is characterized by an overall increase in biomass associated with exotic species. With regard to catches, the model projects increase in the eastern basin and a significant decrease in the western part. A change in the species composition of catches could appear during the 21st century with winner (e.g. anchovy) and loser (e.g. hake) species. Winner species would mainly belong to the small pelagics group, are thermophilic and/or exotic, of smaller sizes and of low trophic level while loser species are generally large-sized, some of them of great commercial interest, and could suffer from a spatial mismatch with potential prey subsequent to a contraction or shift of their geographic range. Fisheries management scenario projections highlight the benefits of greater selectivity or reduced fishing mortality for the recovery of certain stocks of commercial interest, particularly among organisms belonging to the demersal, benthic and large pelagic groups. A reduction in fishing mortality could also reverse the projected decline in biomass and total catches in the Western Mediterranean.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 3, 2019 - 11:21:06 AM
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Fabien Moullec. Impacts du changement global sur la biodiversité en mer Méditerranée : une approche par modélisation End-to-End. Sciences agricoles. Université Montpellier, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019MONTG015⟩. ⟨tel-02276939⟩



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