Event summarization on social media stream : retrospective and prospective tweet summarization

Abstract : User-generated content on social media, such as Twitter, provides in many cases, the latest news before traditional media, which allows having a retrospective summary of events and being updated in a timely fashion whenever a new development occurs. However, social media, while being a valuable source of information, can be also overwhelming given the volume and the velocity of published information. To shield users from being overwhelmed by irrelevant and redundant posts, retrospective summarization and prospective notification (real-time summarization) were introduced as two complementary tasks of information seeking on document streams. The former aims to select a list of relevant and non-redundant tweets that capture "what happened". In the latter, systems monitor the live posts stream and push relevant and novel notifications as soon as possible. Our work falls within these frameworks and focuses on developing a tweet summarization approaches for the two aforementioned scenarios. It aims at providing summaries that capture the key aspects of the event of interest to help users to efficiently acquire information and follow the development of long ongoing events from social media. Nevertheless, tweet summarization task faces many challenges that stem from, on one hand, the high volume, the velocity and the variety of the published information and, on the other hand, the quality of tweets, which can vary significantly. In the prospective notification, the core task is the relevancy and the novelty detection in real-time. For timeliness, a system may choose to push new updates in real-time or may choose to trade timeliness for higher notification quality. Our contributions address these levels: First, we introduce Word Similarity Extended Boolean Model (WSEBM), a relevance model that does not rely on stream statistics and takes advantage of word embedding model. We used word similarity instead of the traditional weighting techniques. By doing this, we overcome the shortness and word mismatch issues in tweets. The intuition behind our proposition is that context-aware similarity measure in word2vec is able to consider different words with the same semantic meaning and hence allows offsetting the word mismatch issue when calculating the similarity between a tweet and a topic. Second, we propose to compute the novelty score of the incoming tweet regarding all words of tweets already pushed to the user instead of using the pairwise comparison. The proposed novelty detection method scales better and reduces the execution time, which fits real-time tweet filtering. Third, we propose an adaptive Learning to Filter approach that leverages social signals as well as query-dependent features. To overcome the issue of relevance threshold setting, we use a binary classifier that predicts the relevance of the incoming tweet. In addition, we show the gain that can be achieved by taking advantage of ongoing relevance feedback. Finally, we adopt a real-time push strategy and we show that the proposed approach achieves a promising performance in terms of quality (relevance and novelty) with low cost of latency whereas the state-of-the-art approaches tend to trade latency for higher quality. This thesis also explores a novel approach to generate a retrospective summary that follows a different paradigm than the majority of state-of-the-art methods. We consider the summary generation as an optimization problem that takes into account the topical and the temporal diversity. Tweets are filtered and are incrementally clustered in two cluster types, namely topical clusters based on content similarity and temporal clusters that depends on publication time. Summary generation is formulated as integer linear problem in which unknowns variables are binaries, the objective function is to be maximized and constraints ensure that at most one post per cluster is selected with respect to the defined summary length limit.
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Abdelhamid Chellal. Event summarization on social media stream : retrospective and prospective tweet summarization. Information Retrieval [cs.IR]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30118⟩. ⟨tel-02276764⟩

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