La régulation de la perfusion musculaire dépendante du monoxyde d’azote (NO) : effet de l’aptitude aérobie et des facteurs de risques cardiovasculaires liés à la diméthylarginine asymétrique

Abstract : We aimed to determine whether dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation and ADMA modulate NO bioavailability and muscle blood flow during exercise. The second purpose was to establish whether aerobic fitness alters the effects of dietary NO3- supplementation and ADMA on muscle blood flow during exercise. In our meta-analysis, we found that dietary NO3- supplementation decreases V̇O2 during exercise performed in the moderate and heavy intensity domains in healthy subjects, and enhances exercise tolerance in subjects with chronic diseases, but no change in V̇O2. Our second study showed that dietary NO3- supplementation did not increase the number of repetitions completed during supramaximal intensity intermittent exercise in endurance athletes with high aerobic fitness (V̇O2max > 65 mL.kg-1.min-1), and did not increase muscle blood volume. In the third study, aerobic fitness is not related to muscle O2 delivery and plasma ADMA concentrations in young male subjects with a wide range of aerobic fitness level. In the fourth study, increased plasma ADMA levels did not decrease muscle blood flow during low-treadmill running exercise in healthy rats. In conclusion, dietary NO3- supplementation could contribute to an improved tolerance to exercise by reducing O2 cost during exercises at submaximal intensities. However, endurance-trained athletes with high V̇O2max level do not benefit from the effects of dietary NO3- supplementation on exercise performance and muscle blood flow as reported in moderately trained subjects. Moreover, ADMA did not regulate muscle blood flow and O2 delivery during exercise in conditions free from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in humans and in the rat with pharmacological-induced increase in plasma ADMA levels.
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Mehdi Pawlak-Chaouch. La régulation de la perfusion musculaire dépendante du monoxyde d’azote (NO) : effet de l’aptitude aérobie et des facteurs de risques cardiovasculaires liés à la diméthylarginine asymétrique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S055⟩. ⟨tel-02276623⟩

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