Radioimmunothérapie préciblée de la carcinose péritonéale par chimie bioorthogonale

Abstract : Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) consists to combine the specificity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), or mAbs derived structures, towards tumor antigens with the imaging/therapy properties of radionuclides, representing thus a theranostic strategy. RIT efficiency in solid tumors is limited due to both mAbs slow diffusion and long blood clearance. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) appears as an alternative to circumvent hematotoxicity and improve therapeutic efficacy. We have thus worked on PRIT based on bioorthogonal click chemistry relying on the interaction between trans-cyclooctene (TCO) and tetrazine (TZ). Application of this strategy was made for imaging and therapy of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal origin (A431-CEA-Luc model/ 35A7 mAb). We have first assessed the influence of mAbs modifications, in vitro and in vivo experiments made on both PC model and subcutaneous colorectal cancer (HT29 model/ Ts29.2 mAb). We thus demonstrated that mAbs modifications influence the interaction between TCO and TZ without decreasing their antigen binding capacities. Indeed, addition of PEGylated (polyethylene glycol) linkers between mAbs and TCO induced a significant decrease of TCO/TZ interaction. In addition, we also demonstrated that TCO moieties undergo severe isomerization to cis-cyclooctene (CCO) moieties which are unreactive towards TZ. Addition of PEG linkers also increased the isomerization rate of TCO to CCO. Our results highlighted that a non PEGylated mAb should represent the best structure for PRIT to avoid isomerization and consequently to control the ratio of CCO before mAbs coupling to maximize TCO/TZ interaction. In disseminated PC, we have made for the first time the proof of concept of SPECT imaging between 35A7-TCO and TZ-PEG4-DOTA-177Lu (i.e. TZ-1). We indeed obtained a specific signal corresponding to PC tumors with a very good contrast. However, a PRIT experiment using TZ-1 did not allow observing neither improvement of median survivals nor tumor growth slow down. Those disappointing results led to reconsider the TZ-1 structure and evaluate three new TZ (i.e. TZ-2-4). The TZ-3, bearing a longer PEG linker than TZ-1, appears as the most appropriate for PRIT studies and will soon be considered for a new therapy experiment. In conclusion, we demonstrated the possibility to do pretargeted imaging of peritoneal disseminated tumors using bioorthogonal click chemistry with TCO/TZ interaction. Nevertheless, this strategy is quite complicated to do due to both TCO isomerization and reactivity of radiolabelled TZ probes. Further optimizations will be mandatory before therapy can be transferred to clinic.
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Aurelie Rondon. Radioimmunothérapie préciblée de la carcinose péritonéale par chimie bioorthogonale. Sciences agricoles. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAS009⟩. ⟨tel-02275818⟩

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