[60]Fullerène et dérivés : critères de pureté et impact fonctionnel in vivo sur les mitochondries, in vitro et ex vivo sur les cellules de l’allergie

Abstract : In 1985 Kroto discovered the third allotrope of carbon, fullerene, spherical molecule consists of 60 carbons with 1 nm in diameter with a specific physico-chemical characteristic. The chemical reactivity of C₆₀ is governed by addition reactions and its high affinity for scavenging free radicals thanks to its 30 double bonds. This property has been widely explored in the field of oxidative stress, in vitro and in vivo, where redox balance is involved, as physio-pathological situations involving inflammation and cellular degeneration. In particular, treatment with C₆₀ solubilized in olive oil extended life span in a rat experimental model. The product, marketed worldwide, has not yet been clinically tested. On the other hand, some preparations may contain impurities. It is therefore important to establish criteria for the purity and integrity of C₆₀ preparations. This thesis work consists of two parts. In the first physico-chemical part, a criterion of C₆₀ purity was established for evaluating the purity of several commercial preparations of C₆₀ with different origins using the following techniques: scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), as well as ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show that FTIR is the easiest way to control the quality of C₆₀ and GC-MS is necessary for identifying volatile impurities, while HPLC remains essential for detecting other fullerenes and C₆₀ derivatives. The second part of the thesis deals with functional aspect of fullerenes and for this purpose we used the pure preparation of C₆₀ evaluated according to the previously defined criteria. In a first chapter, to precise the sub-cellular compartment targeted, the C₆₀ dissolved in olive oil were in vivo injected in mice. After administration, C₆₀ molecules were visualized in the liver and in the spleen, inside the cells and sometimes in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The targeting of [60]fullerene to the mitochondria was confirmed by a specific modification of the activities of mitochondrial enzymes (malate dehydrogenase and complex I of respiratory chain). In a second chapter we studied the effect of fullerenes on cells involved in an immune dysregulation where inflammation plays a role: allergy. The cellular mechanism at the basis of allergic symptoms is the release in circulation and tissues of mediators of inflammation and immune response from IgE-dependent activation of basophiles and mast cells. The regulatory effects of [60]fullerene and 4 hydrosoluble derivatives, fullerol, β-cyclodextrin [60]fullerene, dendro [60]fullerene and [60]fullerene serinol-malonate, were tested. In vitro experiments showed an absence of toxicity at nanomolar concentrations and inhibitory abilities on the IgE-dependent and -independent activation of the rat mast cell line (RBL). In a cellular activation test monitoring the expression of the degranulation and activation markers CD63 and CD203c on basophiles, by flow cytometry, we show that the various fullerenes are able also to inhibit the ex vivo activation of basophiles from peanut allergic patients in a natural physiological environment: in whole blood. Inhibition rates depend on patients and derivatives with a maximum inhibition observed at 35% in presence of [60]fullerene serinol-malonate. These inhibitions were reproduced on purified human basophiles by studying further activation markers CD107a and CD69. Working perspectives will be on the specificity and the mechanisms of inhibition by studying intracellularly calcium influx or the expression of fusion proteins and transcription factors.
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Sanaz Keykhosravi. [60]Fullerène et dérivés : critères de pureté et impact fonctionnel in vivo sur les mitochondries, in vitro et ex vivo sur les cellules de l’allergie. Chimie analytique. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS047⟩. ⟨tel-02275801⟩

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