Hydrogels injectables et éponges à base de complexe polyélectrolytes (chitosane/polymère de cyclodextrine) pour une application en ingénierie tissulaire osseuse

Abstract : Repair of bone defects by bone tissue engineering (BTE) methods is considered as an alternative to conventional grafts. The aim of this PhD project was to develop two types of BTE scaffolds for bone regeneration: one is in the form of injectable hydrogel, and the other is in the form of sponge. Both scaffolds based on the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes by mixing chitosan (CHT, cationic) and polymer of cyclodextrin (PCD, anionic). Besides developing the sponge scaffold, the vascularization of 3D scaffold (a challenge of BTE) was specially investigated in the first part of the work, for which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEFG) was loaded on the CHT/PCDs sponge to promote the vascularization. The second part of the thesis was dedicated to the elaboration of an injectable CHT/PCD hydrogel, which was intended for minimally invasive surgery. The formulation optimization of hydrogel was performed by tuning the composition ratios of two PCD components: soluble-form PCD (PCDs) and insoluble-form PCD (PCDi), in order to better reach the specific requirement (e.g. rheological properties) of injectable hydrogel for regenerative medicine. Finally, a prospective study on developing the composite hydrogel/sponge by adding a mineral phase - hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the formulation was realized to improve the mechanical and osteoconductive properties.CHT/PCDs sponges were obtained by freeze-drying the hydrogels CHT/PCDs 3:3. The thermal treatment (TT) at different temperatures was further applied on the sponge to improve the mechanical stability. The CHT/PCDs sponge treated at 160°C was opted for further study thanks to high swelling capacity (~ 600%) and moderate lysozyme-induced biodegradation rate in vitro (~ 12% mass loss 21 days). This sponge of choice was further evaluated for the microstructure, the mechanical property (compressive strength) and the cytocompatibility with pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and endothelial cells (HUVEC). Results of X-ray microtomography showed a high porosity (~87%) in the sponge with interconnected pores. Good cell adhesion and in-growth (colonization) in the sponge were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After loading VEGF on the sponge, the release profile of VEGF and the bioactivity of released VEGF were thoroughly studied. It showed that the release of VEGF was rapid (burst) during the first two days, then slowed down up to non-detectable by ELISA method after 7 days. The released VEGF during the first two days showed a significant pro-proliferation and pro-migration effect on HUVECs.For the injectable CHT/PCDi/PCDs hydrogels, optimization of composition ratio was based on evaluating their rheological properties, injectability, and cytotoxicity. The beneficial effect of combining both PCDi and PCDs in the formula of the hydrogel was clearly observed on the properties of hydrogel. Namely, the CHT/PCD hydrogel, composed of equal quantity of PCDi and PCDs, demonstrated the best compromise between structural stability, shearthinning and self-healing properties, and injectability. An excellent cytocompatibility with preosteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) was also confirmed for the hydrogel with this composition.Based on the optimized formulation, HAp was incorporated at different concentrations, which didn’t disturb the formation or the structural stability of the hydrogels, but improved the viscoelastic properties. The composite sponges, elaborated by lyophilization of these hydrogels, showed that the HAp particles homogeneously dispersed within the macroporous structure of the sponge. These encouraging results showed the feasibility of providing an injectable hydrogel or a composite sponge for BTE scaffold [...]
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Carla Palomino Durand. Hydrogels injectables et éponges à base de complexe polyélectrolytes (chitosane/polymère de cyclodextrine) pour une application en ingénierie tissulaire osseuse. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LIL2S006⟩. ⟨tel-02275357⟩

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