Qubit readouts using a transmon molecule in a 3D circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture

Abstract : Using the transverse coupling between a qubit and a microwave cavity in the dispersive limit is the most common technique in circuit-QED to readout a qubit state. However, despite important progress in the last decade, implementing a fast single shot high fidelity readout remains a major challenge. Indeed, inferring the qubit state is limited by the trade-off between speed and accuracy. The transverse coupling imposes two significant experimental limitations: firstly, increasing the interaction for faster readout leads to limited qubit lifetime via the Purcell effect. Secondly, the strength of the signal is limited to avoid unwanted measurement-induced transitions. Therefore, the experimental challenge with transverse coupling is to acquire a weak signal in a short time...To overcome these limitations, we want to change this coupling paradigm by introducing a new readout scheme relying on a direct cross-Kerr coupling. This scheme is obtained thanks to a superconducting artificial molecule coupled to a microwave 3D cavity. The molecule is built by inductively coupling two transmon artificial atoms, resulting in two eigenmodes: a symmetric mode, the transmon qubit and an antisymmetric mode, the ancilla. By optimal positioning of the molecule in the cavity, a transverse hybridization between ancilla and cavity leads to two weakly anharmonic resonators, called polaritons. The latter possess a large and direct cross-Kerr coupling with the transmon qubit. By driving one of the polariton, the qubit states can be resolved.Theoretically, in such a coupling scheme, the qubit is immune to the limitation of the transverse coupling such as the Purcell effect. However, for the two studied samples, a residual transverse coupling remains due to experimental imperfections. Even if it is weak, it limits for now the qubit lifetime and the readout performances. Despite this, we observe single shot qubit readout performance with fidelity as high as 97.2 % in a 500 ns latching measurement using the non-linearity of the polariton. In a low photons number linear regime, we report fidelity as high as 94.7 % in only 50 ns thanks to the addition of a Josephson parametric amplifier. In this regime, quantum jumps are resolved and the qubit is measured non-destructively 99.2 % of the time.
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Submitted on : Thursday, August 29, 2019 - 3:55:14 PM
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Rémy Dassonneville. Qubit readouts using a transmon molecule in a 3D circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. Condensed Matter [cond-mat]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAY003⟩. ⟨tel-02274266⟩

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