Approche mécanistique de la réponse de la palourde japonaise, Ruditapes philippinarum, exposée à la bactérie Vibrio tapetis : influence de la température et du régime algal

Abstract : The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, was introduced in France in 1972 following the willingness of bivalve aquaculture diversification. In the late 1980s, episodic mass mortality events were observed in ponds of the “Pays des Abers” region (Finistère, France). The massive mortality of clams was associated brown ring disease (BRD), a vibriosis which causative agent is Vibrio tapetis. BRD development in field has been associated with the modulation of environmental factors such as temperature or the presence of trophic resource. Firstly in the frame of the present work, experimental infections of clams with different strains of V. tapetis were performed together with animal acclimation at two contrasted temperatures. The increase of temperature from 15 to 22 ° C was associated with higher enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), involved in the antioxidant system, and the phenoloxidase (PO), involved in the innate immune system. Temperature increase also led to a decrease in virulence of V. tapetis. Together, these results might explain the decline in BRD prevalence and intensity observed at 22 ° C. Secondly, sexually mature clams fed with two microalgal diets contrasted in terms of lipid composition were infected with V. tapetis. Although microalgae quality did not lead to any difference in BRD prevalence and intensity, the reproductive status of clams influenced BRD intensity. Metabolic responses of R. philippinarum exposed to V. tapetis were not influenced by the food quality but mainly by BRD development. These responses consisted in a modulation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase) and enzymes related to innate immune system (PO and inducible nitric oxide synthase) according to the presence of BRD clinical signs. Finally, the use of these biochemical indicators could allow for new criteria for selection of BRD resistant clams.
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Gaëlle Richard. Approche mécanistique de la réponse de la palourde japonaise, Ruditapes philippinarum, exposée à la bactérie Vibrio tapetis : influence de la température et du régime algal. Biologie animale. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BRES0103⟩. ⟨tel-02272897⟩

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