Caractérisation des proliférations nostocaléennes anciennes et futures via les akinètes présents dans les sédiments

Abstract : Akinetes are resistant cells produced by cyanocteria of the Nostocales Order. Originating from the differentiation of vegetative cells, Akinetes are able to persist in surface sediment duringg winter and then germinate in spring to recolonize the water column. Monitoring on pelagic and benthic populations performed during two years in lake Aydat has shown that the akinetes present in surface sediments are representative of diversity and abundances of past nostocalean proliferations. Akinetes capacity to persist in sediment at large time scales has allowed to highlight cyanobacterial presence since several thousand years. Recurrences of akinetes in sediment from 6 700 years to present day presume that the trophic level stayed high through the history of this lake. In parallel, the toxic potential of akinetes, studied with the detection of anaC and mcyA genes, has shown the co-occurrence of anatoxin-a and microcystins the since first cyanobacterial blooms, 6 700 years ago and the recurrence of anaC associated to Dolichospermum macrosporum since at least the last 30 years. On the other hand, high differences of intact akinete percentages have been observed depending on the species, with mean values of 5 and 60 % for D. macrosporum and D. flos-aquae (the two dominant species) respectively. This varibiliy may be the reflect of ecologic interactions which occurred in the water column and may be due to different ecological strategies. Moreover, ability and time of germination seem to be dependent, which may allow to extend the window of recruitment depending on environmental conditions. Despite a high loss of viability over time, some akinetes buried since 1 800 years in sediments have shown their ability to germinate, confirming the importance of these resistant cells in the long scale perpetuation of nostocalean blooms.
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Benjamin Legrand. Caractérisation des proliférations nostocaléennes anciennes et futures via les akinètes présents dans les sédiments. Etudes de l'environnement. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAC109⟩. ⟨tel-02272749⟩

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