Les troubles respiratoires du sommeil dans les maladies génétiques chez l’enfant : diagnostic et prise en charge

Abstract : The research project I carried out since 2015 concerns the “diagnosis and treatment of SDB in children with genetic diseases”. The entire project was developed at the NIV and sleep unit of Necker Children Hospital in Paris.The first aim of my research project is focused on the development and improvement of new tools to diagnose SDB in children. PSG remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of SDB, but this exam is expensive, time consuming, difficult to interpret and most important, not available in most paediatric centres. Moreover, PSG quality is often affected by the involuntary displacement or loss of sensors or by the intolerance of the different sensors by the child. Given these considerations, one of the main challenges in paediatric sleep medicine is the development and validation of simplified tools, capable of improving the tolerance issues while assuring high and reliable accuracy.The first project I developed concerned the validation of a suprasternal pressure sensor to characterise sleep apnoea during respiratory polygraphy. This study was published in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine in December 2016. A second part of this study is currently ongoing and explores the usefulness of the same sensor for the detection of respiratory events. The aim of this two part project is to demonstrate the validity of this sensor for the detection of airflow and respiratory efforts in children, thus allowing complementary analysis to nasal cannula and thoraco abdominal belts.The second project I carried out regards the use of the variations of pulse wave amplitude (PWA) as a surrogate of cortical microarousals. This study aimed at the validation of a surrogate of cortical microarousals in order to replace the standard EEG signal for their detection and to use PWA as a simple tool for the scoring of hypopneas during respiratory polygraphy. This study was published in Sleep Medicine in June 2017.During my PhD program, I also collaborate to another study concerning the use of pulse transit time (PTT) for the characterisation of respiratory events during polygraphy. This study was published in Sleep and Breathing in March 2017.The second axe of my research concerned the treatment of SDB in children with genetic and congenital disorders. The first study concerned the use of CPAP in the treatment algorithm of a series of infants with Pierre Robin sequence. This study highlighted the usefulness of CPAP in avoiding tracheostomy in this particular group of patients with severe OSAS. This paper was published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in February 2016. The second study aimed at the identification of objective criteria that lead to the initiation of CPAP or NIV in children and infants. This study was published in Pediatric Pulmonology in September 2016. I also collaborated to the conception, data analysis and draft redaction of a second manuscript regarding the criteria authorising the weaning from CPAP and NIV in children. This paper was published in Pediatric Pulmonology in September 2017. A third article concerning a programme of outpatient initiation of CPAP in children is currently under revision in the Journal of Clinical and Sleep Medicine.I also collaborated in the conception, data analysis and manuscript revision of other papers regarding the description and management of SDB in children with Down syndrome, congenital myasthenia and achondroplasia.Finally, I am the first investigator of a study concerning sleep structure and sleep related respiratory events in girls with Rett syndrome.
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Alessandro Amaddeo. Les troubles respiratoires du sommeil dans les maladies génétiques chez l’enfant : diagnostic et prise en charge. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC0066⟩. ⟨tel-02272360⟩

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