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I. I. Annexe,

, Etude de la rhéologie des laves martiennes

, Elle a été estimée par de nombreuses approches. 1/ La densité moyenne de Mars a permis d'estimer que le manteau martien a une composition basique à ultrabasique, enrichie en fer, La composition des laves martiennes n'est pas aussi facile d'accès que celle des laves terrestres

. Soderblom, / Les données de télédétection et les analyses en laboratoire révèlent l'existence d'unités d'albédo contrastées, 1969.

. Bandfield, 4/ La morphologie des coulées sur les volcans boucliers, et l'interprétation des propriétés rhéologiques des laves suggèrent que les seuils de contrainte et les viscosités correspondent aux basaltes mafiques, 5/ Les météorites SNC (Shergottites, Nakhlites et Chassignites), interprétées comme étant des roches martiennes, 1976.

. Zuber, Ces études antérieures, 2000.

, La gravité martienne serait d'environ 3,73 m/s , avec une température moyenne

. Arvidson, de -50°C et une pression moyenne de 750 Pa à la surface. Les laves martiennes consisteraient en des laves basiques à ultrabasiques, enrichies en fer (~18% de la concentration en roche total, Adams et McCord, 1969.

, Wilson et Head, 1994], serait à l'origine d'une viscosité relativement faible qui expliquerait la longueur des coulées martiennes qui sont 6 fois plus longues que celles observées sur Terre, Cette forte concentration en FeO, 2 à 3 fois plus importante que celle des basaltes terrestres, 2007.

. Données,

. C'est, une région relativement lisse, subhorizontale, avec une pente régionale de l'ordre de 0,01° (ex. 200 m de dénivelé vertical en 920 km

;. Mars and . Vaucher, A partir du nombre de cratères d'impact (~15000), Vaucher et al. [2009] suggèrent que certaines des structures volcaniques seraient extrêmement récentes (~2 Ma) et que l'activité volcanique se serait produite durant au moins 250 Ma, 1986.

, types de sources : 1/ des sources ponctuelles à l'origine de volcans boucliers de faibles amplitudes (au maximum 100 m de haut pour 100 km de diamètre), 2003.

G. Sakimoto, et marqués par des cratères sommitaux bien localisés et des coulées étroites et courtes sur leurs flancs, 1986.

;. Greeley and . Vaucher, Ces coulées atteignent généralement une épaisseur de 20 à 50 m au niveau de leur front, 1987.

. Vaucher, , 2007.

, Ce sont ces coulées, mises en place au niveau du système de fractures de la plaine CEP que nous cherchons à modéliser

, Le système de fractures nommé « Cerberus Fossae », est orienté N100-N110°E et s'étend entre

. 2°n/175°e and . 12°n/154°e-[plescia, sur une distance excédant 1200 km au travers de la plaine CEP. Il est constitué d'une série de fractures linéaires et grabens en échelon disposés en deux segments subparallèles nommés, Northern Cerberus Fossae (NCF) et Southern Cerberus Fossae (SCF) (Annexe II-1), 2003.

. Mège, qui se seraient développées par glissement progressif durant plusieurs millions d'années. Cependant, la plupart des auteurs Annexe II-1 : Cartes de localisation des zones d'étude dans la plaine Centrale d'Elysium Planitia A/ Vue topographique de Mars réalisée à partir de données MOLA (Mars Orbiter Lazer Altimeter). La carte B est localisée par un encadré rouge, L'origine de ces fractures et grabens est encore débattue. Vetterlein et Roberts [2010], suggèrent qu'ils correspondraient à des failles de dilatation, 2003.

. B/, Image thermique à 100 m de résolution de la plaine Centrale d'Elysium Planitia. L'image est acquise de jour par la caméra THEMIS (THermal EMission Imaging System), fixée sur le satellite Mars Odyssey. Les deux zones d'étude sont localisées par des encadrés jaunes

, Les coulées analysées lors de cette étude sont typiques des coulées issues de sources fissurales et sont composées de différents lobes superposés similaires aux coulées de laves lobées mises en place de part et d'autre d'un graben axial par exemple. Elles couvrent des surfaces d'environ 1,6 km pour les plus petites coulées à environ 750 km pour les plus étendues. Les fronts des coulées en forme de lobe

, Est de la NFC La zone 1 est localisée sur la partie Est de NCF (Annexe II-4). Le plancher est couvert par une coulée dont la source se situe au niveau d'un graben aux bords abrupts, vol.1

L. Km-de, . La-coulée-s'est-Écoulée-vers-le-nord, and . Le, Cette coulée a une surface d'environ 409 km², soit un volume d'environ 8,18 km 3 . Ce vo&lume est dérivé du produit entre la surface de la coulée et son épaisseur au front. En bordure du graben éruptif, la coulée est marquée par des zones Annexe II-4 : Carte structurale de la zone 1 superposé à une image CTX. Les fronts des coulées sont indiqués par un trait noir, Les chenaux et rides sont soulignés de traits fins noirs

, Ces régions effondrées peuvent être à la fois dues au retrait des laves dans la fissure éruptive ou au drainage de la lave vers les pentes les plus basses, comme observées dans les coulées de laves lobées à l'axe des dorsales par exemple, effondrées, aux bords abrupts, atteignant 5 à 10 m de profondeur (Annexe II-6-B)

, elle est constituée de plusieurs lobes, caractérisés par une surface bosselée. Sur une distance de 8 km de part et d'autre du graben éruptif, la coulée est parcourue par des chenaux de laves qui indiquent la direction de mise en place des laves

, parallèles à la direction de l'écoulement. Ces rides sont interprétées par Keszthelyi et al. [2004] comme des structures formées lors du déplacement de la lave au-delà d'un obstacle fixe. Des structures similaires, d'environ 10m de haut et quelques centaines de mètres de long ont été observées sur des coulées martiennes de dimensions similaires, 2000.

. Cartwright, Les chenaux et fronts des lobes continus de part et d'autre de ce deuxième graben et l'absence de structures d'effondrement et de traces d'érosion suggère que ce second graben n'est pas à l'origine de sorties de fluides (eau ou lave) à cet endroit. La relation entre le graben et les coulées indique clairement que le graben est postérieur à la mise en place des laves (Annexe II-6-A), Bohnenstiehl et Kleinrock, 1995.

A. Ii-5, Profil topographique au niveau des fronts Nord (A) et Sud (B) de la coulée. Les deux profils sont localisés en rouge sur l'annexe

, Ces laves ne seront pas prises en considération dans le calcul. 2.3.2. Zone 2 : Ouest de la SCF La deuxième zone d'étude est localisée sur la partie Ouest de la SCF (Annexe II-1). Elle est caractérisée par la présence de coulées issues d'au moins quatre grabens distincts (Annexe II-7).Certaines d'entre-elles ont été décrites par Burr et al. [2002a] à partir d'images MOC (Mars Orbiter Camera). Ici, nous nous focalisons sur la coulée la plus large, A l'Ouest de la coulée principale décrite ci-dessus, les laves semblent se mettre en place à partir de deux fissures plus étroites (< 20 m de large)

, La coulée A a pour source un graben de 350 à 550 m de large, caractérisé par une pente qui semble

, raide au sommet et plus douce dans sa partie inférieure. L'extension Nord Sud de la coulée est, vol.7, p.5

, Cette eau est à l'origine de chenaux vers 156°40'E. La direction des chenaux fluviaux Annexe II-6Zoom d'image HIRISE au niveau des deux grabens les plus larges de la zone 1.Le graben le plus au Nord (A), formé par un ensemble de segments en échelon, recoupe clairement la coulée antérieure. La bordure du graben Sud (B) est marquée par des régions effondrées pouvant être liées au retrait des laves dans la fissure éruptive, au drainage de la lave vers les pentes les plus basses, ou à de l'érosion induit par l'échappement d'eau via le graben source, km, et son épaisseur atteint environ 15 m à son front, vol.25

. Head, Seule l'extrémité Est du graben associé à la coulée B dans la zone 2 et le graben non éruptif de la zone 1 semblent avoir la morphologie originelle, Ces grabens très larges sont similaires à ceux observés dans d'autres régions de Mars ou les fractures sont associées à des sorties de lave et d'eau. De nombreux auteurs, 2003.

L. , C. Hirise, and ;. Berman, mettent clairement en évidence plusieurs sources de fluide et de lave au niveau du système de fractures de Cerberus (cf. coulée A zone 2). Ces images confirment ainsi les études antérieures suggérant et documentant que ce système de fractures qui est la source d'éruptions volcaniques contrôlerait également les sorties d'eau [Plescia, 1990.

, Outre les dimensions des coulées, notre modèle nécessite d'autres paramètres tels que la densité des laves, la densité de l'encaissant, la gravité et la largeur du dyke (cf. Chapitre VIII-1). Ces paramètres sont définis à partir de travaux antérieurs

. G. Zuber, , 2000.

. Mcsween, , 2002.

, Sur Terre, il est bien établi que le magma induit par la fusion du manteau tend à s'accumuler et stagner, formant des chambres magmatiques, 1987.

C. Dans-notre, les fissures éruptives ne sont pas associées à des édifices volcaniques proéminents

. Zuber, ni une structuration du plancher pouvant être associée à l'inflation ou la déflation d'un réservoir. Nous faisons donc l'hypothèse que le réservoir magmatique alimentant les coulées des deux zones d'étude est localisé à la base de la croûte, dont l'épaisseur est estimée variée de 8 km (sous Hellas) à 77 km (dans la région de Tharsis), Nous n'observons pas non plus de calderas, généralement associées à la présence d'un réservoir magmatique peu profond, 2000.

, Nous supposons donc la profondeur de la chambre magmatique à 30-40 km

, Le temps de résidence des magmas entre les éruptions n'étant pas connu, nos calculs sont réalisés pour excès de pression dans la chambre magmatique de 20, 50 et 100 MPa, La viscosité est choisie entre, vol.10, p.5

. Pa, Ces valeurs ont été choisies sur la base de travaux antérieurs sur Terre et sur Mars. La composition des magmas martiens est estimée être basaltique à andésitique, vol.6

;. Pa and . Cigolini, .s sont calculées pour des basaltes Hawaiiens, 1976.

. Moore, , 1987.

P. , s pour des trachytes, 1985.

, Les basaltes de Columbia Riverbasalts (Etats Unis) et du Mt Etna présentent des viscosités similaires, Murase et McBirney, 1973.

, Les andésites du volcan Paracutin (Mexique), ont des viscosités de, vol.3

. Pa,

P. Hulme, , 1976.

, Sur Mars les viscosités varient de l'ordre de 10, vol.4, p.10

. Pa, , 1976.

. Hiesinger, Par exemple, les viscosités des différentes coulées de Acraeus Mons varient de 1, vol.8, 2007.

. Pa, , vol.4

P. Hiesinger, , 2007.

;. D&apos;autre-part and . Vaucher, en utilisant les équations de Jeffrey (cf. Chapitre I-9.3), 2009.

P. , s pour les coulées plus larges et sans levées de la plaines CEP

, Résultats par coulée Les résultats du modèle pour les trois coulées avec des viscosités de 10

, La différence entre l'épaisseur dynamique et l'épaisseur géométrique suggère que si la coulée n'a pas ou a peu subi d'inflation, alors la surpression à l'origine de la coulée serait proche ou supérieure à 100 MPa

, Dans la zone 2, la coulée A se serait mise en place en 1 à 12 heures avec un taux d

, /s/m et une vitesse du front de inférieure à 4 m/s. La différence entre l'épaisseur calculée (épaisseur dynamique) et l'épaisseur mesurée (géométrique) suggère que la pression en excès à l

. Mpa and . Au-delà, La coulée B se serait mise en place en quelques dizaines de minutes à 3 h, avec un taux d'extrusion de 0,5 à 19 m 3 /s/m et une vitesse du front inférieure à 1,5 m/s. La différence entre l'épaisseur calculée (épaisseur dynamique) et l'épaisseur mesurée (géométrique) suggère que la pression en excès à l

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