Simulation d’un accélérateur linéaire d’électrons à l’aide du code Monte-Carlo PENELOPE : métrologie des traitements stéréotaxiques par cônes et évaluation de l’algorithme eMC

Abstract : Using the PenEasy Monte-Carlo code was simulated the linear electron accelerator of Princess Grace Hospital Center. After the validation of all the techniques allowing to accelerate the calculation time (variance reduction technique, parallelization, etc.), the characteristics of the initial electron beams were determined for one photon energy and four electron energies in order to study two clinical issues. The first one concerns the comparative study of the responses of eight dosimeters for the measurement of basic data in small fields using stereotactic cones with a diameter between 30 mm to 4 mm. These photon beams are characterized by strong dose gradients and a significant lack of charged particule equilibrium, making conventional dosimetric techniques unsuitable. Output factor measurment (OF), dose profile and depth dose measurements were performed with seven active detectors (diodes, ionization chambers and MicroDiamond) and a passive detector (radiochromic film) and compared with the results from the Monte Carlo simulation considered as our reference. For the OF measurement, only the radiochromic film is in agreement with the simulation with difference less than 1%. The MicroDiamond seems to be the best active detector with a maximum gap of 3.7% for the 5 mm cone. Concerning the dose profile measurements, the best results were obtained with the radiochromic film and diodes shielded or not (penumbre difference of less than 0,2 mm). For depth dose, all the detectors used have good result (absorbed dose difference less than 1 %). The second application concerns the evaluation of the eMC electron deposition algorithm on CT slices. For this, a « voxelisation » program under MATLAB was developed to transform the Hounsfield numbers from the scanner to material property (density and chemical composition) usable by the PenEasy Monte-Carlo code. A triple comparison between measurement with radiochromic films, calculation with the eMC algorithm and Monte-Carlo PenEasy simulation was carried out in different configurations: simple heterogeneous phantom (superposition of plates of different densities), a complex heterogeneous phantom (anthropomorphic phantom) and a patient comparison. The results showed that a wrong material assignment of the medium causes a difference of dose absorbed locally (up to 16%) but also downstream the simulation due to a wrong taking into account of the modification of the electronic spectrum. The absorbed dose distribution comparison on the patient plane showed a very good agreement between the results from the eMC algorithm and those obtained with the PenEasy code (deviation < 3%).
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Nicolas Garnier. Simulation d’un accélérateur linéaire d’électrons à l’aide du code Monte-Carlo PENELOPE : métrologie des traitements stéréotaxiques par cônes et évaluation de l’algorithme eMC. Physique [physics]. Université Côte d'Azur, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AZUR4241⟩. ⟨tel-02272122⟩

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