S. Abdikan, M. Ar?kan, F. B. Sanli, and Z. Çakir, Monitoring of coal mining subsidence in peri-urban area of Zongundak city (NWTurkey) with persistent scatterer interferometry using ALOS-PALSAR, Environ. Earth Sci, vol.71, pp.4081-4089, 2014.

A. Aytun, Creep measurements in the Ismetpasa region of the North Anatolian fault zone, In Multidisciplinary Approach to Earthquake Prediction, pp.279-292, 1982.

G. Baer, Y. Magen, R. N. Nof, E. Raz, V. Lyakhovsky et al., InSAR Measurements and Viscoelastic Modeling of Sinkhole Precursory Subsidence: Implications for Sinkhole Formation, Early Warning, and Sediment Properties, J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf, vol.123, pp.678-693, 2018.

R. Bamler and P. Hartl, Synthetic aperture radar interferometry, Inv, Prob, vol.15, pp.1-54, 1998.

A. Barka, H. S. Akyuz, G. Sunal, Z. Cakir, A. Dikbas et al., The surface rupture and slip distribution of the 17, vol.92, pp.43-60, 1999.

A. Barra, L. Solari, M. Béjar-pizarro, O. Monserrat, S. Bianchini et al., A Methodology to Detect and Update Active Deformation Areas Based on Sentinel-1 SAR Images, p.1002, 2017.

M. Béjar-pizarro, C. Guardiola-albert, R. P. García-cárdenas, G. Herrera, A. Barra et al., Interpolation of GPS and geological data using InSAR deformation maps: Method and application to land subsidence in the alto guadalentín aquifer, Remote Sensing, vol.8, p.965, 2016.

M. Béjar-pizarro, P. Ezquerro, G. Herrera, R. Tomás, C. Guardiola-albert et al., Mapping groundwater level and aquifer storage variations from InSAR measurements in the Madrid aquifer, Central Spain, J. Hydrol, pp.678-689, 2017.

D. P. Bekaert, R. J. Walters, T. J. Wright, A. J. Hooper, and D. J. Parker, Statistical comparison of InSAR tropospheric correction techniques, Remote Sens. Environ, vol.170, pp.40-47, 2015.

P. Berardino, G. Fornaro, R. Lanari, and E. Sansosti, A new algorithm for surface deformation monitoring based on small baseline differential SAR interferograms, Geosci. and Remote Sensing, IEEE Trans. on, vol.40, pp.2375-2383, 2002.

J. Biggs, T. Wright, Z. Lu, and B. Parsons, Multi-interferogram method for measuring interseismic deformation: Denali Fault, Alaska. Geophysical Journal International, vol.170, issue.3, pp.1165-1179, 2007.

J. Biggs, R. Bürgmann, J. T. Freymueller, Z. Lu, B. Parsons et al., The postseismic response to the 2002 M, vol.7, 2009.

, Denali Fault earthquake: constraints from InSAR, Geophys. J. Int, vol.176, pp.353-367, 2003.

J. Biggs, E. Robertson, and C. K. , The lateral extent of volcanic interactions during unrest and eruption, Nature Geoscience, vol.9, pp.308-311, 2016.

R. Bilham, Surface slip subsequent to the 24 November 1987 Superstition Hills, California, earthquake monitored by digital creep-meters, vol.79, pp.424-450, 1989.

R. Bilham, H. Ozener, D. Mencin, A. Dogru, S. Ergintav et al., Surface creep on the North Anatolian Fault at Ismetpasa, Turkey, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.121, issue.10, pp.7409-7431, 1944.

G. Bitelli, F. Bonsignore, and M. Unguendoli, Levelling and GPS networks to monitor ground subsidence in the Southern Po Valley, J. Geodyn, vol.30, pp.355-369, 2000.

E. Bol, E. Arel, A. Önalp, S. Sert, and A. Ozocak, Liquefaction of silts: the Adapazari criteria, vol.8, p.859, 2010.

M. Bouchon, M. P. Bouin, H. Karabulut, M. N. Toksoz, M. Dietrich et al., How fast is rupture during an earthquake? New insights from the 1999 Turkey earthquakes, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.28, pp.2723-2726, 2001.

M. Bouchon, H. Karabulut, M. Bouin, J. Schmittbuhl, M. Vallée et al., Faulting characteristics of supershear earthquakes, Tectonophysics, vol.493, issue.3-4, pp.244-253, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00545483

L. G. Brown, A survey of image registration techniques, ACM computing surveys (CSUR), vol.24, issue.4, pp.325-376, 1992.

B. U. Koeri-retmc, , 2018.

S. Burak and E. Kucukakca, Impact of Land Reclamation on the Coastal Areas in Istanbul, General Assembly Conference, pp.12-17, 2015.

R. O. Burford and P. W. Harsh, Slip on the San Andreas fault in central California from alignment array surveys, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.70, pp.1223-1261, 1980.

, Institute of Hydrology, Bursa Environment Project Report on Hydrology and Water Quality Modelling, p.10, 1991.

C. A. Brunori, C. Bignami, M. Albano, F. Zucca, S. Samsonov et al., Land subsidence, Ground Fissures and Buried Faults: InSAR Monitoring of Ciudad Guzmán, vol.7, pp.8610-8630, 2015.

R. Burgmann, D. Schmidt, R. Nadeau, M. Alessio, E. Fielding et al., Earthquake potential along the northern Hayward fault, Science, vol.289, pp.1178-1182, 2000.

R. Burgmann, P. A. Rosen, and E. J. Fielding, Synthetic aperture radar interferometry to measure Earth's surface topography and its deformation. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences, vol.28, pp.169-209, 2000.

R. Burgmann and T. W. , Space geodesy: A revolution in crustal deformation measurements of tectonic processes, The Web of Geological Sciences: Advances, Impacts and Interactions: Ed. ME Bickford, vol.500, pp.397-430, 2013.

R. Burgmann, The geophysics, geology and mechanics of slow fault slip, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.495, pp.112-134, 2018.

Z. Cakir, J. B. De-chabalier, R. Armijo, B. Meyer, A. Barka et al., Coseismic and early postseismic slip associated with the 1999 Izmit earthquake (Turkey), from SAR interferometry and tectonic field observations, Geophysical Journal International, vol.155, pp.93-110, 2003.

P. Castellazzi, R. Martel, A. Rivera, J. Huang, G. Pavlic et al., Groundwater depletion in Central Mexico: Use of GRACE and InSAR to support water resources management, Water Resources Research, vol.52, issue.8, pp.5985-6003, 2016.

P. Castellazzi, R. Martel, D. L. Galloway, L. Longuevergne, and A. Rivera, Assessing groundwater depletion and dynamics using GRACE and InSAR: potential and limitations, vol.54, pp.768-780, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01381273

P. Castellazzi, L. Longuevergne, R. Martel, A. Rivera, C. Brouard et al., Quantitative mapping of groundwater depletion at the water management scale using a combined GRACE/InSAR approach. Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.205, pp.408-418, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01662460

O. Cavalié, C. Lasserre, M. P. Doin, G. Peltzer, J. Sun et al., Measurement of interseismic strain across the Haiyuan fault, InSAR. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.275, issue.3-4, pp.246-257, 2008.

J. Champenois, B. Fruneau, E. Pathier, B. Deffontaines, K. C. Lin et al., Monitoring of active tectonic deformations in the Longitudinal Valley (Eastern Taiwan) using Persistent Scatterer InSAR method with ALOS PALSAR data, Earth Planet Sc. Lett, vol.337, pp.144-155, 2012.

W. Y. Chang, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Chu, and J. R. Kao, Mapping geohazard by satellite radar interferometry, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.100, issue.10, pp.2835-2850, 2012.

S. Changxing, Z. Dian, Y. Lianyuan, L. Bingyuan, Z. Zulu et al., Land subsidence as a result of sediment consolidation in the Yellow River Delta, Journal of Coastal Research, pp.173-181, 2007.

E. Chaussard, S. Wdowinski, E. Cabral-cano, A. , and F. , Land subsidence in central Mexico detected by ALOS InSAR time-series, 2014.

, Remote Sens. Environ, vol.140, pp.94-106

J. Chen, J. Wu, L. Zhang, J. Zou, G. Liu et al., Deformation trend extraction based on multi-temporal InSAR in Shanghai, Remote Sens, vol.5, pp.1774-1786, 2013.

M. Crosetto, A. Arnaud, J. Duro, E. Biescas, A. et al., Deformation monitoring using remotely sensed radar interferometric data, Proc. 11th FIG Symposium on Deformation Measurements, 2003.

M. Crosetto, N. Devanthéry, O. Monserrat, A. Barra, M. Cuevas-gonzález et al., A Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Procedure Based on Stable Areas to Filter the Atmospheric Component, Remote Sensing, vol.10, issue.11, p.1780, 2018.

C. Colesanti, A. Ferretti, C. Prati, and F. Rocca, Monitoring landslides and tectonic motion with the Permanent Scatterers Technique, Eng. Geol, vol.68, pp.1-14, 2003.

D. Soldato, M. Farolfi, G. Rosi, A. Raspini, F. Casagli et al., Subsidence Evolution of the Firenze-Prato-Pistoia Plain (Central Italy) Combining PSI and GNSS Data, Remote Sensing, vol.10, p.1146, 2018.

R. Deniz, A. Aksoy, D. Yalin, H. Seeger, and H. O. , Determination of crustal movement in Turkey by terrestrial geodetic methods, Journal of Geodynamics, vol.18, issue.1-4, pp.13-22, 1993.

F. Diao, T. Walter, G. Solaro, R. Wang, M. Bonano et al., Fault locking near Istanbul: Indication of earthquake potential from InSAR and GPS observations, Geophys. J. Int, vol.205, issue.1, pp.490-498, 2006.

F. Diao, T. R. Walter, F. Minati, R. Wang, M. Costantini et al., Secondary Fault Activity of the North Anatolian Fault near Avcilar, vol.8, p.846, 2016.

U. Dogan, D. Oz, and E. S. , Kinematics of landslide estimated by repeated GPS measurements in the Avcilar region of Istanbul, Turkey, Stud. Geophys Geodyn, vol.57, pp.217-232, 2012.

T. Y. Duman, ?stanbul Metropolü Bat?s?ndaki (Küçükçekmece-SilivriÇatalca Yöresi) Kentsel Geli?me Alanlar?n?n Yerbilim Verileri. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlügü(MTA) Özel Yay?n Serisi -3, 2004.

T. Y. Duman, T. Can, C. Gokceoglu, and H. A. Nefeslioglu, Landslide susceptibility mapping of Cekmece area (Istanbul, Turkey) by conditional probability, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, vol.2, pp.155-208
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00298621

T. Y. Duman, T. Can, R. Ulusay, M. Keçer, Ö. Emre et al., -b). Geohazard reconnaissance study based on geoscientific information for development needs of the western region of Istanbul (Turkey), Environ. Geol, vol.4, pp.871-888, 2005.

T. Einfalt and F. Keskin, Analysis of the Istanbul Flood, BALWOIS 2010 Scientific Conference on Water Observation and Information System for Decision Support, 2009.

T. Eisenlohr, Die Thermalwässer der ArmutluHalbinsel (NW-Türkei) und deren Beziehung zu Geologie und aktiver Tektonik, (Doktoral Dissertation), 1995.

C. Elachi, Spaceborne radar remote sensing: applications and techniques, p.285, 1988.

O. Emre, T. Y. Duman, S. Ozalp, H. Elmaci, S. Olgun et al., Active Fault Map of Turkey with and Explanatory Text, Ankara, Turkey, Special Publication Series-30, 2013.

K. Eren, Strain analysis along the North Anatolian fault by using geodetic surveys, Bulletin Géodésique, vol.58, issue.2, pp.137-149, 1984.

M. Ergin, S. Özalaybey, M. Aktar, and M. N. Yalcin, Site amplification at Avc?lar, Istanbul. Tectonophysics, vol.391, issue.1, pp.335-346, 2004.

S. Ergintav, E. Demirbag, V. Ediger, R. Saatcilar, S. Inan et al., Structural framework of onshore and offshore Avcilar, Istanbul under the influence of the North Anatolian Fault, Geophysical Journal International, vol.185, issue.1, pp.93-105, 2001.

S. Ergintav, S. Mcclusky, E. Hearn, R. Reilinger, R. Cakmak et al., earthquake sequence, Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 1999, M= 7.4 and M=, p.114, 2009.

S. Ergintav, R. Reilinger, R. Çakmak, M. Floyd, Z. Cakir et al., Istanbul's earthquake hot spots: Geodetic constraints on strain accumulation along faults in the Marmara seismic gap, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.41, issue.16, pp.5783-5788, 2014.

, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for the Eurasia Tunnel Project Istanbul, vol.1, 2011.

I. E. Evinemi, A. A. Adepelumi, A. , and O. , Canal structure subsidence investigation using ground penetrating radar and geotechnical techniques, International Journal of Geo-Engineering, vol.7, issue.1, p.9, 2016.

H. Eyidogan, Analysis of Micro-Seismicity of Istanbul Greater City Area and Active Faults, Proceedings of the International Workshop on "Comparative studies of the North Anatolian Fault (northwest Turkey) and the, p.54, 2006.

A. Evseev, V. Asanov, I. Lomakin, and A. Tsayukov, Experimental and theoretical studies of undermined strata deformation during room and pillar mining, Geomechanics and Geodynamics of Rock Masses, 2018.

P. Ezquerro, G. Herrera, M. Marchamalo, R. Tomás, M. Béjar-pizarro et al., quasi-elastic aquifer deformational behavior: Madrid aquifer case study, J. Hydrol, vol.519, pp.1192-1204, 2014.

T. Farr, P. Rosen, E. Caro, R. Crippen, R. Duren et al., The shuttle radar topography mission, Reviews of Geophysics, issue.2, p.45, 2007.

H. Fattahi and A. F. , InSAR observations of strain accumulation and fault creep along the Chaman Fault system, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.43, pp.8399-8406, 2016.

K. C. Fergason, M. L. Rucker, and B. B. Panda, Methods for monitoring land subsidence and earth fissures in the Western USA, Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, vol.372, pp.361-366, 2015.

C. R. Froese, M. , and S. , Mapping and monitoring coal mine subsidence using LiDAR and InSAR, Proceedings of the GeoEdmonton2008, pp.1127-1133, 2008.

A. K. Gabriel, R. M. Goldstein, and H. A. Zebker, Mapping small elevation changes over large areas: differential radar interferometry, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.94, issue.B7, pp.9183-9191, 1989.

D. L. Galloway, K. W. Hudnut, S. E. Ingebritsen, S. P. Phillips, G. Peltzer et al., Detection of aquifer system compaction and land subsidence using interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Water Resources Research, vol.34, issue.10, pp.2573-2585, 1998.

J. P. Galve, J. V. Pérez-peña, J. M. Azañón, D. Closson, F. Caló et al., Evaluation of the SBAS InSAR Service of the European Space Agency's Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP), p.1291, 2017.

L. Ge, A. H. Ng, X. Li, H. Z. Abidin, and I. Gumilar, Land subsidence characteristics of Bandung Basin as revealed by ENVISAT ASAR and ALOS PALSAR interferometry. Remote sensing of Environment, vol.154, pp.46-60, 2014.

E. Gok and O. Polat, An assessment of the seismicity of the Bursa region from a temporary seismic network, Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol.169, issue.4, pp.659-675, 2012.

J. Goodman and J. Weare, Ensemble samplers with affine invariance, Communications in Applied Mathematics and Computational Science, vol.5, pp.65-80, 2010.

N. Gourmelen, F. Amelung, F. Casu, M. Manzo, and R. Lanari, Mining-related ground deformation in Crescent Valley, Nevada: Implications for sparse GPS networks, Geophys. Res. Lett, p.34, 2007.

R. F. Hanssen, Radar interferometry: data interpretation and error analysis, vol.2, 2001.

R. A. Harris, Large earthquakes and creeping faults, Reviews of Geophysics, vol.55, pp.169-198, 2017.

E. H. Hearn, S. Mcclusky, S. Ergintav, and R. E. Reilinger, Izmit earthquake postseismic deformation and dynamics of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.114, p.8405, 2009.

T. Helgert and O. Heidbach, Slip-rate variability and distributed deformation in the Marmara Sea fault system, Nature Geoscience, vol.3, pp.132-136, 2010.

T. A. Herring, R. W. King, M. A. Floyd, and S. C. Mcclusky, Introduction to GAMIT/GLOBK, Release 10, vol.6, 2015.

E. A. Hetland, M. Simons, and E. M. Dunham, Post-seismic and interseismic fault creep I: Model description, Geophysical Journal International, vol.181, issue.1, pp.81-98, 2010.

S. A. Higgins, I. Overeem, M. S. Steckler, J. P. Syvitski, L. Seeber et al., InSAR measurements of compaction and subsidence in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf, vol.119, pp.1768-1781, 2014.

K. M. Hiscock and V. F. Bense, Hydrogeology: principles and practice, 2009.

J. Hoffmann, H. Zebker, D. Galloway, A. , and F. , Seasonal subsidence and rebound in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, observed by synthetic aperture radar interferometry, Water Resour. Res, vol.37, pp.1551-1566, 2001.

A. Hooper, P. Segall, and H. Zebker, Persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar for crustal deformation analysis, with application to Volcán Alcedo, J. Geophys. Res, vol.112, p.7407, 2007.

D. Hooper, J. Coughlan, and M. R. Mullen, Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit, The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, vol.6, pp.53-60

A. Hooper, -b). A Multi-temporal InSAR method incorporating both persistent scatterer and small baseline approaches, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.35, p.16, 2008.

A. Hooper, D. Bekaert, K. Spaans, and A. M. , Recent advances in SAR interferometry time series analysis for measuring crustal deformation, Tectonophysics, vol.514, pp.1-13, 2011.

X. Hu, T. Oommen, Z. Lu, T. Wang, and J. W. Kim, Consolidation settlement of Salt Lake County tailings impoundment revealed by time-series InSAR observations from multiple radar satellites, pp.199-209, 2017.

A. Hubert-ferrari, A. Barka, E. Jacques, S. S. Nalbant, B. Meyer et al., Seismic hazard in the Marmara Sea region following the 17 August 1999 Izmit earthquake, Nature, vol.404, pp.269-273, 2000.

E. Hussain, T. J. Wright, R. J. Walters, D. Bekaert, A. Hooper et al., Geodetic observations of postseismic creep in the decade after the 1999 Izmit earthquake, Turkey: Implications for a shallow slip deficit, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.121, pp.2980-3001, 2016.

E. Hussain, T. J. Wright, R. J. Walters, D. P. Bekaert, R. Lloyd et al., Constant strain accumulation rate between major earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault, Nature Communications, p.9, 2018.

T. Imbach, Deep groundwater circulation in the tectonically active area of Bursa, Northwest Anatolia, Turkey. Geothermics, vol.26, issue.2, pp.251-278, 1997.

E. Intrieri, G. Gigli, M. Nocentini, L. Lombardi, F. Mugnai et al., Sinkhole monitoring and early warning: An experimental and successful GB-InSAR application, Geomorphology, vol.241, pp.304-314, 2015.

R. L. Ireland, J. F. Poland, and F. S. Riley, Land Subsidence in the, US Geological Survey Professional, US Government Printing Office, 1980.

R. Jolivet, C. Lasserre, M. Doin, S. Guillaso, G. Peltzer et al., Shallow creep on the Haiyuan fault, p.117, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02169770

R. Jolivet, C. Lasserre, M. P. Doin, G. Peltzer, J. P. Avouac et al., Spatio-temporal evolution of aseismic slip along the Haiyuan fault, China: Implications for fault frictional properties, Earth Planetary Science Letters, pp.23-33, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00861428

R. Jolivet, M. Simons, P. S. Agram, Z. Duputel, and Z. Shen, Aseismic slip and seismogenic coupling along the central, Geophysical Research Letters, p.42, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01112587

R. Jolivet, T. Candela, C. Lasserre, F. Renard, Y. Klinger et al., The burst-like behavior of aseismic slip on a rough fault: The creeping section of the Haiyuan Fault, vol.105, pp.480-488, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01302143

F. Jouanne, F. A. Audemard, C. Beck, A. Van-welden, R. Ollarves et al., Present-day deformation along the El Pilar Fault in eastern Venezuela: Evidence of creep along a major transform boundary, Journal of Geodynamics, vol.51, issue.5, pp.398-410, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00680457

K. E. Joyce, S. E. Belliss, S. V. Samsonov, S. J. Mcneill, and P. J. Glassey, A review of the status of satellite remote sensing and image processing techniques for mapping natural hazards and disasters, Progress in Physical Geography, vol.33, issue.2, pp.183-207, 2009.

M. Kaduri, J. Gratier, F. Renard, Z. Cakir, and C. Lasserre, The implications of fault zone transformation on aseismic creep: example of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey. Journal of Geophysical Research, pp.4208-4236, 2017.

M. Kaduri, J. Gratier, C. Lasserre, Z. Çakir, R. et al., Quantifying the Partition Between Seismic and Aseismic Deformation Along Creeping and Locked Sections of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey. Pure and Applied Geophysics, pp.1-29, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02155523

B. M. Kampes, Displacement Parameter Estimation Using Permanent Scatterer Interferometry, 2005.

B. Kampes, S. , and U. , Doris: The Delft Object-Oriented Radar Interferometric Software, Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Operationalization of Remote Sensing, pp.16-20, 1999.

Y. Kaneko, Y. Fialko, D. T. Sandwell, X. Tong, and M. Furuya, Interseismic deformation and creep along the central section of the North Anatolian fault (Turkey): InSAR observations and implications for rate-and-state friction properties, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.118, pp.316-331, 2013.

M. Y. Khakim, T. Tsuji, and T. Matsuoka, Lithology-controlled subsidence and seasonal aquifer response in the Bandung basin, Indonesia, observed by synthetic aperture radar interferometry, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol.32, pp.199-207, 2014.

M. Khoshmanesh and M. Shirzaei, Multiscale Dynamics of Aseismic Slip on Central San Andreas Fault, Geophysical Research Letters, p.45, 2018.

H. Kilic, P. T. Ozener, M. Yildirim, K. Ozaydin, A. et al., Evaluation of Kucukcekmece region with respect to soil amplification, Proceedings of the International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, pp.12-16, 2005.

S. W. Kim, S. Wdowinski, T. H. Dixon, F. Amelung, J. W. Kim et al., Measurements and predictions of subsidence induced by soil consolidation using persistent scatterer InSAR and a hyperbolic model, Geophys. Res. Lett, p.37, 2010.

S. W. Kim, S. Wdowinski, T. H. Dixon, F. Amelung, J. S. Won et al., InSAR-based mapping of the surface subsidence in Mokpo City, Korea, using JERS-1 and ENVISAT SAR data, Earth Planets Space, vol.60, pp.453-461, 2008.

R. W. King and Y. Bock, Documentation of the MIT GPS Analysis Software: GAMIT, Mass. Inst. of Technol, 2004.

E. Klein, Z. Duputel, F. Masson, H. Yavasoglu, A. et al., Aseismic slip and seismogenic coupling in the Marmara Sea: What can we learn from onland geodesy, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.44, issue.7, pp.3100-3108, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01515396

. Koeri, The earthquake activities of the Marmara Region between, Bogazici Univ Kandilli Obs. Earth. Res. Inst, 1990.

A. I. Komuscu and S. Celik, an assessment from hydrometerological perspective, Nat. Hazards, vol.66, pp.781-808, 2009.

A. O. Konca, S. Leprince, J. Avouac, and D. V. Helmberger, Rupture process of 1999, Mw 7.1 Düzce earthquake from joint analysis of SPOT, GPS, InSAR, strong-motion and teleseismic data: A supershear rupture with variable rupture velocity, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.100, issue.1, pp.267-287, 2010.

H. S. Kutoglu, H. Kemaldere, T. Deguchi, and M. Berber, Discovering a pull-apart basin using InSAR in Bursa, Turkey. Natural Hazards, vol.71, issue.1, pp.871-880, 2014.

R. Lanari, O. Mora, M. Manunta, J. J. Mallorquí, P. Berardino et al., A Small Baseline DIFSAR Approach for Investigating Deformations on Full Resolution SAR Interferograms, IEEE Trasnactions on geoscience and remote sensing, vol.42, issue.7, pp.1377-1386, 2004.

J. J. Lienkaemper, J. S. Galehouse, and R. W. Simpson, Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.28, pp.2269-2272, 2001.

Y. Liu and N. Lapusta, Transition of mode II cracks from sub-Rayleigh to intersonic speeds in the presence of favorable heterogeneity, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol.56, pp.25-50, 2008.

R. Liu, R. Zou, J. Li, C. Zhang, B. Zhao et al., Vertical Displacements Driven by Groundwater Storage Changes in the North China Plain Detected by GPS Observations, Remote Sensing, vol.10, issue.2, p.259, 2018.

G. Liu, H. Jia, Y. Nie, T. Li, R. Zhang et al., Detecting subsidence in coastal areas by ultrashort-baseline TCPInSAR on the time series of high-resolution TerraSAR-X images, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol.52, pp.1911-1923, 2014.

P. López-quiroz, M. P. Doin, F. Tupin, P. Briole, N. et al., Time series analysis of Mexico City subsidence constrained by radar interferometry, Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol.69, issue.1, pp.1-15, 2009.

Q. Luo, D. Perissin, Y. Zhang, and Y. Jia, L-and X-band multi-temporal InSAR analysis of Tianjin subsidence, Remote Sens, vol.6, pp.7933-7951, 2014.

C. Marone, Laboratory-derived friction laws and their application to seismic faulting, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol.26, issue.1, pp.643-696, 1998.

D. Massonnet, T. Holzer, and H. Vadon, Land subsidence caused by the East Mesa geothermal field, California, observed using SAR interferometry, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.24, pp.901-904, 1997.

D. Massonnet, K. Feigl, M. Rossi, and F. Adrangna, Radar Interferometric mapping of deformation in the year after The Landers Earthquake, Nature, vol.369, issue.6477, pp.227-230, 1994.

D. Massonnet and K. L. Feigl, Radar interferometry and its application to changes in the Earth's surface, Reviews of geophysics, vol.36, issue.4, pp.441-500, 1998.

D. Massonnet and T. Rabaute, Radar interferometry: limits and potential, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.31, issue.2, pp.455-464, 1993.

J. Maurer, J. , and K. , Fault coupling and potential for earthquakes on the creeping section of the central San Andreas fault, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.119, pp.4414-4428, 2014.

B. J. Meade, Y. Klinger, and E. A. Hetland, Inference of multiple earthquake-cycle relaxation timescales from irregular geodetic sampling of interseismic deformation, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.103, issue.5, pp.2824-2835, 2013.

M. Meremonte, O. Ozel, E. Cranswick, M. Erdik, E. Safak et al., Damage and site response in Avc?lar, west of Istanbul, The 1999 Izmit and Duzce Earthquake. Preliminary Result, pp.265-267, 1999.

R. Michel and J. P. Avouac, Deformation due to the 17, 1999.

T. Izmit, earthquake measured from SPOT images, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.107, issue.B4, p.2062

M. Motagh, J. Hoffmann, B. Kampes, M. Baes, and J. Zschau, Strain accumulation across the Gazikoy-Saros segment of the North Anatolian Fault inferred from Persistent Scatterer Interferometry and GPS measurements, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.255, issue.3-4, pp.432-444, 2007.

M. Motagh, R. Shamshiri, M. Haghshenas-haghighi, H. U. Wetzel, B. Akbari et al., Quantifying groundwater exploitation induced subsidence in the Rafsanjan plain, southeastern Iran, using InSAR time-series and in situ measurements, Eng. Geol, vol.218, pp.134-151, 2017.

D. E. Moore and M. J. Rymer, Talc-bearing serpentinite and the creeping section of the San Andreas fault, Nature, vol.448, pp.795-797, 2007.

D. E. Moore and D. A. Lockner, Chemical controls on fault behavior: Weakening of serpentinite sheared against quartz-bearing rocks and its significance for fault creep in the San Andreas system, Journal of Geophysical Research Solid Earth, vol.118, pp.1-13, 2013.

T. Nishimura, T. Matsuzawa, and K. Obara, Detection of short-term slow slip events along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, using GNSS data, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.118, issue.6, pp.3113-3125, 2013.

H. Ozener, A. Dogru, and B. Turgut, Quantifying aseismic creep on the Ismetpasa segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey) by 6 years of GPS observations, Journal of Geodynamics, vol.67, issue.7, pp.72-77, 2012.

A. Okada, Land deformation of the neighbourhood of Muroto Point after the Nankaido great earthquake in 1946, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, vol.31, pp.169-177, 1953.

A. I. Okay, M. Sat?r, O. Tuysuz, S. Akyuz, C. et al., The tectonics of the Strandja Massif: late Variscan and mid-Mesozoic deformation and metamorphism in the north Aegean, Int. J. Earth Sci, vol.90, pp.217-233, 2001.

T. Okuda, On the mode of the vertical land deformation accompanying the great Nankaido earthquake 1946, Bull. Geogr. Surv. Inst, vol.2, issue.1, pp.37-59, 1950.

O. Ozel, E. Cranswick, M. Meremonte, M. Erdik, and E. Safak, Site effects in Avcilar, west of Istanbul, Turkey, from strong and weak motion data, vol.92, pp.499-508, 2002.

N. Ozgul, K. Üner, ?. Akme?e, ?. Bilgin, R. Kokuz et al., ?stanbul il alan?n?n genel jeoloji özellikleri. ?stanbul Büyük?ehir Belediyesi Deprem ve Zemin ?nceleme Müdürlü?ü, p.79, 2005.

O. Ozcan and N. Musaoglu, Vulnerability analysis of floods in urban areas using remote sensing and GIS, Proceedings of the 30th EARSeL Symposium: Remote Sensing for Science, Education and Culture, p.31, 2010.

B. Ozmen, Damage investigation of 17 August 1999 Izmit Earthquake, p.140, 2000.

J. Pacheco-martínez, E. Cabral-cano, S. Wdowinski, M. Hernández-marín, J. Á. Ortiz-lozano et al., Application of insar and gravimetry for land subsidence hazard zoning in aguascalientes, vol.7, pp.17035-17050, 2015.

T. Parsons, Recalculated probability of M7 earthquakes beneath the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.109, p.5304, 2004.

D. Perissin and A. Ferretti, Urban-target recognition by means of repeated spaceborne SAR images, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.45, issue.12, pp.4043-4058, 2007.

G. W. Plant and C. S. Covil, Hughes Site Preparation for the New Hong Kong International Airport, 1998.

J. F. Poland, Guidebook to Studies of Land Subsidence Due to GroundWater Withdrawal, UNESCO, 1984.

L. Pousse-beltram, E. Pathier, F. Jouanne, R. Vassallo, C. Reinoza et al., Spatial and temporal variations in creep rate along the El Pilar fault at the Caribbean-South American plate boundary (Venezuela), from InSAR, Journal of Geophysical Research, p.121, 2016.

M. Radiguet, F. Cotton, M. Vergnolle, M. Campillo, A. Walpersdorf et al., Slow slip events and strain accumulation in the Guerrero gap, Mexico. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, issue.B4, p.117, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01052783

H. F. Reid, The mechanics of the earthquake: the California earthquake of 18, 1910.

, Report of the State Earthquake Investigation Commission, 1906.

R. Reilinger, S. Mcclusky, P. Vernant, S. Lawrence, S. Ergintav et al., GPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions, J. Geophys. Res, vol.111, p.5411, 2006.

P. A. Rosen, S. Hensley, I. R. Joughin, F. K. Li, S. N. Madsen et al., Synthetic aperture radar interferometry Proc, vol.88, pp.333-382, 2000.

M. Rosenau, F. Corbi, and S. Dominguez, Analogue earthquakes and seismic cycles: experimental modelling across timescales, Solid Earth, vol.8, issue.3, pp.597-635, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01553120

B. Rousset, R. Jolivet, M. Simons, C. Lasserre, B. Riel et al., An aseismic slip transient on the North Anatolian Fault, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.43, issue.7, pp.3254-3262, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02185458

M. L. Rucker, B. B. Panda, R. A. Meyers, and J. C. Lommler, Using InSAR to detect subsidence at brine wells, sinkhole sites, and mines, Carbonates and Evaporites, vol.28, issue.1-2, pp.141-147, 2013.

A. Ruiz-constán, A. M. Ruiz-armenteros, F. Lamas-fernández, S. Martosrosillo, J. M. Delgado et al., Multitemporal InSAR evidence of ground subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawal: the Montellano aquifer, 2016.

, Environmental Earth Sciences, vol.75, issue.3, pp.1-16

I. Ryder, B. Parsons, T. Wright, and G. Funning, Post-seismic motion following the 1997 Manyi (Tibet) earthquake: InSAR observations and modeling, Geophysical. J. Int, vol.169, pp.1009-1027, 2007.

R. P. Rykhus and Z. Lu, InSAR detects possible thaw settlement in the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, vol.34, issue.2, pp.100-112, 2008.

D. Sandwell, R. Mellors, X. Tong, M. Wei, and P. Wessel, Open radar interferometry software for mapping surface deformation, Eos Trans. AGU, vol.92, issue.28, p.234, 2011.

D. Sandwell, R. Mellors, X. Tong, and P. Wessel, GMTSAR: An InSAR processing system based on Generic Mapping Tools, technical report, Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr, p.12, 2011.

H. P. Sato, K. Abe, and O. Ootaki, GPS-measured land subsidence in Ojiya city, Niigata prefecture, Japan. Eng. Geol, vol.67, pp.379-390, 2003.

H. P. Sato, K. Abe, and O. Ootaki, GPS-measured land subsidence in Ojiya city, Niigata prefecture, Japan. Engineering Geology, vol.67, issue.3-4, pp.379-390, 2003.

J. Savage and W. Prescott, Asthenosphere readjustment and the earthquake cycle, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.83, issue.B7, pp.3369-3376, 1978.

J. C. Savage and R. O. Burford, Geodetic determination of relative plate motion in central California, J. Geophys. Res, vol.78, pp.832-845, 1973.

J. C. Savage and M. Lisowski, Inferred depth of creep on the Hayward fault, central California, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.98, pp.787-793, 1993.

J. Savage, A dislocation model of strain accumulation and release at a subduction zone, J. geophys. Res, vol.88, issue.6, pp.4984-4996, 1983.

H. H. Selim and O. Tüysüz, The Bursa-Gönen Depression, NW Turkey: a complex basin developed on the North Anatolian Fault, Geological Magazine, vol.150, issue.5, pp.801-821, 2013.

H. H. Selim, O. Tüysüz, A. Karaka?, and K. Ö. Ta?, Morphotectonic evidence from the southern branch of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and basins of the south Marmara sub-region, Quaternary international, vol.292, pp.176-192, 2013.

S. Sen, Cekmece Golleri Aras?ndaki Bolgesinin Jeolojisi ve Sedimenter Ozellikleri: Ist. Univ. Fen Bilimleri Enstitusu, Istanbul, p.66, 1994.

S. Sen, A fault zone cause of large amplification and damage in Avc?lar (west of Istanbul) during 1999 Izmit earthquake, Nat, vol.351, p.363, 2007.

?. ?en, H. Koral, and M. Önalan, Sedimentary and tectonic evidence for the relationship between the Istranca Massif, the Paleozoic of Istanbul and overlying Tertiary sequence, 2, International Symposium on the Petroleum Geology and Petroleum Potential of the Black Sea Area, pp.237-244, 1996.

Z. Serbetci, Examination of Agro-Tourism Potential: Bursa Plain Plain, Journal of International Social Research, issue.56, p.11, 2018.

S. Samieie-esfahany, R. Hanssen, K. Van-thienen-visser, and A. Muntendambos, On the effect of horizontal deformation on InSAR subsidence estimates, Proceedings of Fringe 2009 Workshop, vol.30, 2009.

D. A. Schmidt, R. Burgmann, R. M. Nadeau, and M. A. Alessio, Distribution of aseismic slip-rate on the Hayward fault inferred from seismic and geodetic data, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.110, p.8406, 2005.

J. Schmittbuhl, H. Karabulut, O. Lengliné, and M. Bouchon, 2016-a). Longlasting seismic repeaters in the central basin of the main Marmara fault, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.43, pp.9527-9534

J. Schmittbuhl, H. Karabulut, O. Lengliné, and M. Bouchon, 2016-b). Seismicity distribution and locking depth along the Main Marmara Fault, Turkey. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol.17, issue.3, pp.954-965

L. Solari, A. Ciampalini, F. Raspini, S. Bianchini, and S. Moretti, PSInSAR analysis in the Pisa Urban Area (Italy): a case study of subsidence related to stratigraphical factors and urbanization, Remote Sensing, vol.8, issue.2, p.120, 2016.

C. Straub, C. H.-g.-kahle, and . Schindler, GPS and geologic estimates of the tectonic activity in the Marmara Sea region, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.102, issue.B12, pp.587-614, 1978.

R. S. Stein, A. Barka, and J. H. Dieterich, Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault since 1939 by earthquake stress triggering, Geophysical Journal International, vol.128, pp.594-604, 1997.

K. V. Steinbrugge, E. G. Zacher, D. Tocher, C. A. Whitten, C. et al., Creep on the San Andreas fault, vol.50, pp.396-404, 1960.

H. Sudhaus, J. , and S. , Source model for the 1997 Zirkuh earthquake (MW=7.2) in Iran derived from JERS and ERS InSAR observations, Geophysical. J. Int, vol.185, pp.676-692, 2011.

C. J. Taylor, A. , and W. M. , Ground-Water-Level Monitoring and the Importance of Long-Term Water-Level Data (No. 1217-2002), US Geological Survey, 2002.

T. Temtime, J. Biggs, E. Lewi, I. Hamling, T. Wright et al., Spatial and temporal patterns of deformation at the Tendaho geothermal prospect, Ethiopia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.357, pp.56-67, 2018.

S. S. Tezcan, E. Kaya, E. Bal, and Z. Ozdemir, Seismic amplification at Avcilar, Istanbul, Eng. Struct, vol.24, pp.661-667, 2002.

W. Thatcher, Systematic inversion of geodetic data in central California, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.84, pp.2283-2297, 1979.

W. Thatcher, How the continents deform: The evidence from tectonic geodesy, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol.37, pp.237-262, 2009.

M. Y. Thomas, J. P. Avouac, J. Champenois, J. C. Lee, and L. C. Kuo, Spatio-temporal evolution of seismic and aseismic slip on the Longitudinal Valley Fault, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, p.119, 2014.

H. Tmmob and . News,

R. Tomás, G. Herrera, J. Delgado, J. M. Lopez-sanchez, J. J. Mallorqui et al., Ground subsidence study based on DInSAR data: Calibration of soil parameters and subsidence prediction in Murcia City (Spain), Eng. Geol, vol.111, pp.19-30, 2009.

R. Tomás, G. Herrera, G. Cooksley, and J. Mulas, Persistent scatterer interferometry subsidence data exploitation using spatial tools: The vega media of the Segura river basin case study, J. Hydrol, vol.400, pp.411-428, 2011.

T. E. Törnqvist, D. J. Wallace, J. E. Storms, J. Wallinga, R. L. Van-dam et al., Mississippi Delta subsidence primarily caused by compaction of Holocene strata, Nature Geoscience, vol.1, issue.3, p.173, 2008.

O. Trubienko, L. Fleitout, J. D. Garaud, and C. Vigny, Interpretation of interseismic deformations and the seismic cycle associated with large subduction earthquakes, Tectonophysics, vol.89, pp.126-141, 2013.

T. Turkish-statistical-institute,

B. Osmanoglu, T. H. Dixon, S. Wdowinski, E. Cabral-cano, and Y. Jiang, Mexico city subsidence observed with persistent scatterer InSAR, Int. J. Appl. Earth Observ. Geoinform, vol.13, pp.1-12, 2011.

O. Ozalaybey, M. Ergin, M. Aktar, C. Tapirdamaz, F. Bicmen et al., The 1999 Izmit Earthquake Sequence in Turkey: Seismological and Tectonic Aspects, vol.92, pp.337-386, 2002.

S. Van-asselen, The contribution of peat compaction to total basin subsidence: Implications for the provision of accomodation space in organic-rich deltas, Basin Res, vol.23, pp.239-255, 2011.

K. Van-leeuwen and R. Sjerps, Istanbul: the challenges of integrated water resources management in Europe's megacity, Environ Dev. Sustain, vol.18, pp.1-17, 2016.

T. R. Walter, M. Manzo, A. Manconi, G. Solaro, R. Lanari et al., Satellite monitoring of hazards: A focus on Istanbul, Turkey. Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, vol.91, pp.313-324, 2010.

L. Wang, R. Wang, F. Roth, B. Enescu, S. Hainzl et al., Afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation following the 1999 M7.4 Izmit earthquake from GPS measurements, Geophysical Journal International, vol.178, pp.1220-1237, 2009.

H. Wang, T. J. Wright, and J. Biggs, Interseismic slip rate of the northwestern Xianshuihe fault from InSAR data, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.36, p.3302

X. Y. Wang, L. Sun, and C. L. Liu, Present situation of land subsidence and its mechanism in China. Global View of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Proceedings of the International Symposium and 9th Asian Regional Conference of IAEG (AREG2013), pp.475-480, 2013.

J. Weertman and J. R. Weertman, Elementary Dislocation Theory, 1964.

M. Wei, D. Sandwell, and Y. Fialko, A silent M4.8 event of October 3-6, 2006, on the Superstition Hills Fault, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.114, p.7402, 2009.

P. Wessel, W. H. Smith, R. Scharroo, J. Luis, and F. Wobbe, Generic Mapping Tools: Improved version released, EOS Trans. AGU, vol.94, pp.409-410, 2013.

. Wikipedia, The view of Bursa Plain from the hills of Mount Uludag, Available Online, 2018.

P. Wright and R. Stow, Detecting mining subsidence from space, Int. J. Remote Sens, vol.20, pp.1183-1188, 1999.

T. Wright, Remote monitoring of the earthquake cycle using satellite radar interferometry, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.360, pp.2873-2888, 2002.

T. J. Wright, B. E. Parsons, and Z. L. , Toward mapping surface deformation in three dimensions using InSAR, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.31, p.1607, 2004.

B. Xu, G. Feng, Z. Li, Q. Wang, C. Wang et al., Coastal subsidence monitoring associated with land reclamation using the point target based SBAS-INSAR method: A case study of Shenzhen, China., Remote Sensing, vol.8, issue.8, p.652, 2016.

H. A. Zebker and R. M. Goldstein, Topographic mapping from interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.91, issue.B5, pp.4993-4999, 1986.

H. A. Zebker, P. A. Rosen, R. M. Goldstein, A. Gabriel, and C. L. Werner, On the derivation of coseismic displacement fields using differential radar interferometry-the Landers earthquake, J. Geophys. Res, vol.99, pp.19617-19651, 1994.

D. G. Zeitoun and E. Wakshal, The Subsidence Phenomenon Throughout the World in Land subsidence analysis in urban areas: the Bangkok metropolitan area case study, pp.9-23, 2013.

K. Zhang, L. Ge, X. Li, and A. M. Ng, Monitoring ground surface deformation over the North China Plain using coherent ALOS PALSAR differential Interferograms, J. Geod, vol.87, pp.253-265, 2013.

. Appendices-?-appendix-a,

?. Appendix-b, Supplementary documents of atmospheric phase removal

?. Appendix-c, Supplementary materials of uncertainties on horizontal and vertical velocities obtained from InSAR data inversion

?. Appendix-d, Supplementary materials of the probability distributions obtained from Monte Carlo Markov Chain exploration of the model parameters