MONITORING OF SURFACE DEFORMATION IN NORTHWEST TURKEY FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION INSAR : FOCUS ON TECTONIC ASEISMIC SLIP AND SUBSIDENCE

Abstract : The aim of this thesis is centered on the detection and monitoring of surface deformation in northwest Turkey induced by a variety of natural (such as tectonic activity, slow moving-landslides, etc.) and anthropogenic (ground water extraction, construction activities, etc.) hazards and on the analysis of the related deformation mechanisms and their environmental consequences. In this work, I computed Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time series to examine ground deformation evolution for three different case studies associated to different geophysical phenomena and underlying processes. The focus of this thesis is two-fold : (1) to reveal and monitor the spatio-temporal characteristics of aseismic slip along the August 17, 1999 Mw 7.4 Izmit earthquake rupture, and discuss its potential relationship with lithology and geology (2) to investigate ground subsidence in urban or human-exploited areas induced by various factors, and discuss the relative roles of tectonics, lithology and anthropogenic activities in such ground motion.In the first case-study, I combined InSAR measurements, based on X-band TerraSAR-X and C-band Sentinel-1 A-B radar images acquired over the period 2011-2017, with near field GPS measurements, performed every 6 months from 2014 to 2016, as well as creep meter measurements to examine the surface velocity field around the NAF after the 1999 Izmit earthquake. In this study, the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers InSAR package (StaMPS) was employed to process series of Sentinel 1 A-B (acquired along ascending and descending orbits) and TerraSAR-X (ascending orbits) radar images. The InSAR horizontal mean velocity fields reveal that the creep rate on the central segment of the 1999 Izmit fault rupture continues to decay, more than 19 years after the earthquake, in overall agreement with models of postseismic afterslip rate decaying logarithmically with time. Along the fault section that experienced a supershear velocity rupture during the Izmit earthquake, creep continues with a rate up to ~ 8 mm/yr. A significant transient event with accelerating creep is detected in December 2016 on the Sentinel-1 time series, consistent with creepmeter measurements, near the maximum creep rate location. It is associated with a total surface slip of 10 mm released in one month only. The second case study deals with the identification and measurement of secular ground deformation in Istanbul from a long-term InSAR time-series spanning almost 25 years of satellite radar observations (1992-2017). This InSAR time series was computed from radar images of multiple satellites (ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat, Sentinel-1 A, B) in order to investigate the spatial extent and rate of ground subsidence in the megacity of Istanbul.In the third case study, InSAR time-series analysis is calculated for quantifying the subsidence of the Bursa Plain (southern Marmara region of Turkey), which has been interpreted as resulting from tectonic motions in the region. In this study, the StaMPS is employed to process series of Sentinel 1 A-B radar images acquired between 2014 and 2017 along both ascending and descending orbits. The vertical velocity field obtained after decomposition of line-of-sight velocity fields on the two tracks reveals that the Bursa plain is subsiding at rates up to 25 mm/yr. The most prominent subsidence signal in the basin forms an east-west elongated ellipse of deformation in the east, and is bounded by a Quaternary alluvial plain undergoing average vertical subsidence at ~10 mm/yr. The InSAR time series within the observation period is well correlated with changes in the depth of the ground water. These observations indicate that the recent acceleration of subsidence is mainly due to anthropogenic activities rather than tectonic motion.
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Gokhan Aslan. MONITORING OF SURFACE DEFORMATION IN NORTHWEST TURKEY FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION INSAR : FOCUS ON TECTONIC ASEISMIC SLIP AND SUBSIDENCE. Tectonics. Université Grenoble Alpes; Istanbul teknik üniversitesi, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAU014⟩. ⟨tel-02271771⟩

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