Comment mesurer l'influence de l'information préventive sur les risques majeurs ? : L'intérêt de la mise en situation sur maquette

Abstract : Since 1987, populations have been granted access to preventive information about major risks. It is passed down through a variety of methods, from regulatory documents (DICRIM, PPI brochure etc.) to original supports and alternative expression forms (plays, video clips, exhibitions etc.). Direct questionnaires to populations already assess the efficiency and impact of first category preventive information. However, these assessments do not check whether the information has actually induced adapted behaviors when confronted to stressful conditions, as is the case with extreme events. On the other hand, the impact of second category information appears under-studied, while it is characterized by original methods and tools. These methods, borrowed from arts and pedagogy, generate an interesting popular response, by activating emotions and resorting to sensory stimulation. As a matter of fact, communication science has shown that mobilizing sense and emotions helps with message memorization.In the face of these observations, this thesis proposes to assess how different ways to pass down preventive information influence behavior in a fictional crisis situation. To that end, a new method inspired from arts and role play has been created and experimented upon.Therefore, the study first compares this new method to the classic questionnaire method, and secondly, it opposes regulatory documents to alternative information. By focusing on floods, earthquakes and gas emanation risks, the comparison has been set up and studied on three different sites in Isère in France: Grenoble, Jarrie et Saint-Egrève. The respondents were presented a 3D model as the operating stage, and then confronted to typical dilemmas that can stem from emergency situations. Here, this thesis has highlighted reactions that surveys cannot reveal: reflex actions sometimes contradicting the respondents’ knowledge, hesitations, etc. Benefits and limits of preventive information are thereby more accurate, and depend on circumstances as well as on the respondents’ sociogeographic profiles. The results demonstrate how necessary it is to multiply and diversify the modes of information transmission, and to adapt them to specific audiences, through experience sharing and crisis contextualization.
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Audrey Borelly. Comment mesurer l'influence de l'information préventive sur les risques majeurs ? : L'intérêt de la mise en situation sur maquette. Géographie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAU011⟩. ⟨tel-02271538⟩

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