Le conflit somalien et les Nations Unies

Abstract : The Somali conflict is probably the only internal conflict that has subjected to a tremendous ordeal the collective security system of the United Nations Charter. It breaks out in 1991 at a key moment in the history of the international relations policy. However with the end of the Cold War, it is the beginning of a new era for the UN Universal Organization, long paralyzed by the vetoes of two Great for the effective purpose of the principles set out in the Charter of the United Nations. Occupying along the coastline of the Horn of Africa, Siad Barre's Somalia aligned with Soviet ideology does not survive the dissolution of this block. The result is the beginning of a civil, bloody and fratricidal conflict almost without any outside interference. Facing the complexity of Somalia conflict and the failure of the first attempts at a peaceful resolution, the World Organization engages its peacekeeping doctrine. Thus in the space of three years (1992-1995), the Security Council authorizes the deployment of three UN missions in Somalia: a classic peacekeeping operation (UNOSOM), a sturdy peacekeeping operation (UNITAF) and a peace enforcement operation (UNOSOM II). All of them result in an ineffective failure, forcing the UN peacekeepers to fall back under armed protection while the conflict has still not found a way out. The interest of this study is to highlight the paradigm of the intervention of the United Nations. How could a simple interstate conflict defeat the principles of international law of the United Nations Charter? Especially since the proposed solutions were the subject of consensual treatment by all the members of the Security Council who unanimously approved the resolutions adopted. There is also a need to focus on the United Nations' jagged commitment from 1995 onwards. A disengagement that give a free rein to the AU and IGAD regional organization to undertake new attempts at national reconciliation. The sudden increase of piracy along the Somali coast provides an opportunity for the United Nations to return to this distant conflict. But this is a measured return that once again excludes the use of military coercion. Now engaging in various peace building activities, the United Nations is abandoning the dangerous environment of peacekeeping despite the fact that the Somali conflict continues to pose a threat to international peace and security. In virtue of the principle of subsidiarity, AMISOM, the AU peacekeeping operation in Somalia since 2007 is the only force authorized to use armed force. Between hope and disillusionment, the African peacekeeping force, though undersized, must carry out more and more missions to restore peace and security in the country.
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Mouna Frumence Pascal. Le conflit somalien et les Nations Unies. Droit. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAD006⟩. ⟨tel-02271532⟩

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