Etude de faisabilité de la céramisation du carbone 14 et caractérisation de matériaux spécifiques en lien avec le traitement de déchets nucléaires

Abstract : In France, the current recycling process of the spent nuclear fuel produces a carbon-14 release in the geosphere (long life radionuclide, half-life  5730 y). This document provides scientific and technical data to evaluate the feasibility of carbon conditioning as an alternative to its release. A ceramic type material was chosen because of a specific volume of 2-4 L/kg of carbon, against 12-17 L/kg of carbon for the cementation process currently implemented industrially abroad, to limit the volumes in the case of a potential geological storage. The barytocalcite phase BaCa(CO3)2 has been studied in terms of (i) synthesis process compatible with the existing form of carbon-14 in the cycle (ii) solidification by heat treatment and (iii) leach resistance. The barytocalcite has been obtained by precipitation and densified to more than 95% with SPS sintering for 30 min at 450°C under 70 MPa, without any loss of carbon. This phase has a limited chemical durability in pure water at 30°C but the released carbon ions precipitate as BaCO3 and CaCO3. However the potentiality of barytocalcite as a carbon 14 conditioning matrix remains interesting because of the retention properties of the potential storage site. In a second part, this document provides the results of characterizations made by X-rays scattering and diffraction on different phases in relation with the nuclear waste conditioning R&D.
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Nicolas Massoni. Etude de faisabilité de la céramisation du carbone 14 et caractérisation de matériaux spécifiques en lien avec le traitement de déchets nucléaires. Génie civil nucléaire. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAI030⟩. ⟨tel-02269123⟩

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