Subductions continentales au Tibet Central : héritages pétrologique, rhéologique et construction d'un plateau.

Abstract : How and when the Tibetan Plateau was built remains a complicated issue, with many implications for our understanding of the behaviour of colliding continental lithospheres. Some models highlight the importance of the underthrusting of the Indian lithosphere and of localized thickening at the edges of rigid Asian microplates ; while others consider that the Asian lithosphere is weak and deforms in a distributed manner. The growing, high-quality database documenting deep and surface processes has now to be integrated in order to constrain the different evolution models of the Plateau.This thesis work focuses on the north-eastern Qiangtang block in Central Tibet : although it is a keystone for reconstructions and models, this region remains one of the least studied of the collision zone.In a first part, new 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Late Triassic (215-200 Ma) deformation on the Jinsha suture, along with a metamorphic study of Early Triassic (249 Ma) corundum-bearing crustal xenoliths sampled in Eocene magmatic rocks, shed light on the the major, but underestimated role played by the Mesozoic subductions in bulk crustal thickening. Our results suggest that prior to the Eocene, our study area had reached a crustal thickness of 45-55 km, i.e 80% of its present-day crustal thickness of 66 km. This Mesozoic crustal thickening was likely achieved by continental arc magmatism related to the 80 Ma of continuous oceanic subductions on both edges of the NE-Qiangtang terrane.These interpretations are consistent with the regional emersion and paleo-altitude data.In a second part, a petrological and geochemical study of Eocene magmatic rocksfrom the Nangqian and Xialaxiu basins suggests an intense metasomatism of the source lithospheric mantle by H2O- and CO2-rich fluids or melts. These results are used as a starting point for a series of rheological and thermo-mechanical models, to characterize the behaviour of such lithosphere in a continental convergence context. We show that the lithospheric mantle underlying our study area in the Eocene was particularly weak (logmin~2.3) and buoyant (~3310 kg/m3 à 2 GPa), and its solidus was deflected to low temperatures at medium mantle pressures (~930°C à 3 GPa). From these characteristics, thermo-mechanical models forecast an atypical deformational and partial melting regime, through the injection of metasomatized lithospheric mantle into the asthenosphere, whichadequately reproduces the timing and location of Xialaxiu and Nangqian magmatic events, and the magnitude of crustal thickening observed in our study area, without any delamination of the weakened lithospheric root.This eventually leads us to reconsider the available geophysical data for the Tibetan lithospheric mantle : the low-velocity zone imaged beneath Central Tibet could indeed represent a geochemical, rather than thermal anomaly.
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Fanny Goussin. Subductions continentales au Tibet Central : héritages pétrologique, rhéologique et construction d'un plateau.. Sciences de la Terre. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAU007⟩. ⟨tel-02268972⟩

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