Caractérisation de grands détecteurs Micromegas pour le projet New Small Wheel et recherche de la production de quatre quarks top avec le détecteur ATLAS au LHC

Abstract : This doctoral work was carried out as a member of the ATLAS collaboration at the LHC, an accelerator with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The development of new Micromegas detectors for the NSW project has been studied, along with the search for a very rare physics process : the production of four top quarks at the LHC, at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The physics programme of the LHC plans a significant increase of the luminosity in the coming years, especially for the high-luminosity phase beginning in 2026. Some parts of the ATLAS detectors must be upgraded to cope with the increased radiation levels. The small wheels of the muon spectrometer will be replaced by new small wheels (NSW) using Micromegas detectors. IRFU is responsible for producing some of the detectors, which performances are being validated on a test bench using cosmic muons. During this doctoral work, the aim was to develop an analysis code for the test bench data, in order to characterize the Micromegas detectors of the NSW project. The code provides gain and detection efficiency informations, and will be used until the end of the project. The measured efficiencies are in agreement with the expectations except in some parts of the detectors that are being investigated. The top quark plays a central role in many theories beyond the standard model, for instance in models with extra dimensions, or with a modification of the Higgs boson sector. Many of these models predict an enhanced cross section for the very rare four top quark process, which is predicted to be approximately 12 fb at 13 TeV. The study of the four top quark process is particularly interesting in the channel with leptons having the same electric charge because of the very low background level. This doctoral work is firstly carried out on the data taken in 2015 and 2016 by the ATLAS detector, in order to study the four top quark process and some new physics models. This process is very challenging given the very low number of events, and the difficult estimation of the fake lepton background. Several limits are set on new physics models and on the standard model four top quark production. The results on the standard model process are combined with the results from the single lepton channel to set the tightest limit at the time of its publication. The four top quark production is being studied again, using the data taken from 2015 to 2018 this time, with the aim of making a first observation of this process. The doctoral work is focused on a new method for estimating the fake lepton background.
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Thibault Chevalérias. Caractérisation de grands détecteurs Micromegas pour le projet New Small Wheel et recherche de la production de quatre quarks top avec le détecteur ATLAS au LHC. Physique des Hautes Energies - Expérience [hep-ex]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS172⟩. ⟨tel-02268557⟩

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