Apport de la TEP-IRM en imagerie fonctionnelle rénale pour l’évaluation des mesures de néphroprotection

Abstract : The increase in the incidence of chronic renal failure worldwide requires improvements in measures to slow its progression to end-stage renal failure. The low-protein diet or the prevention of episodes of ischemia-reperfusion belong to these measures of nephroprotection but their benefit is only incompletely understood. The kidney is one of the most vascularized organs, compared to its weight, the concomitant evaluation of renal perfusion ([15O] H2O), oxidative metabolism ([11C] acetate) and tissue content in oxygen (BOLD-IRM) is fundamental in that these three measures are not linearly correlated. PETMRI, a hybrid device combining the functionalities of PET and MRI, allows a concomitant evaluation of these three parameters in a non-invasive and isolated kidney way which allows to use it in clinical research for the evaluation of the effect of different interventions. Low-protein diets have been shown to slow down the decline in renal function, but the mechanism behind this beneficial effect is not known. We have demonstrated that the AGE (Advanced Glycation End Products) content of a protein load is responsible for the mobilization of the renal functional reserve with an increase in perfusion and oxidative metabolism after a high- AGE high- protein compared to a low- AGE high- protein load. Our results make it possible to question the interest of a low-AGE diet for chronic renal insufficiency beyond a pure protein restriction. The prevention of episodes of ischemia reperfusion is also particularly important in the context of nephroprotection, whereas the revascularization of a stenosis of the renal artery is necessarily accompanied by reperfusion injury. Use of ciclosporin prior to dilation of renal artery stenosis in pre-conditioning reduced renal damage in mice, but this clinical benefit has not been demonstrated in humans. The CICLOSAAR study, which aims to evaluate the benefit of pre-conditioning with ciclosporin before dilation of renal artery stenosis with renal functional parameters (perfusion, oxidative metabolism and tissue oxygen content) is in progress. In a second step and to improve the clinical applicability of these functional imaging techniques, we have shown that acetate, which was previously used as a marker of oxidative metabolism, could also be used as a marker of renal perfusion through the modeling of its uptake by the kidney. In total, PET-MRI is a fundamental tool for the evaluation of renal functional parameters in a non-invasive way in humans. Demonstrating the impact of the AGE content of a protein load on perfusion and renal metabolism should help refine our dietary advice to patients with chronic kidney disease to prevent progression of the disease to end-stage renal failure. The current CicloSAAR study is expected to improve the measures implemented to protect the kidney from reperfusion injury after dilatation of renal artery stenosis. Finally, our results on the strong correlation between acetate and water perfusion data should allow this tracer to be used to obtain perfusion and oxidative metabolism after a single radio tracer injection and reinforce clinical applicability of these techniques
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Laetitia Normand. Apport de la TEP-IRM en imagerie fonctionnelle rénale pour l’évaluation des mesures de néphroprotection. Imagerie médicale. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1093⟩. ⟨tel-02268312⟩

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