R. Ajti?, L. Tomovi?, B. Sterijovski, J. Crnobrnja-isailovi?, S. Djordjevi? et al., Unexpected life history traits in a very dense population of dice snakes, Zoologischer Anzeiger -A Journal of Comparative Zoology, vol.252, issue.3, pp.350-358, 2013.

T. G. Amstislavskaya and N. K. Popova, Female-induced sexual arousal in male mice and rats: behavioral and testosterone response, Hormones and Behavior, vol.46, issue.5, pp.544-550, 2004.

M. B. Andersson, Sexual selection, 1994.

M. Andersson and Y. Iwasa, Sexual selection, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, issue.2, pp.81042-81043, 1996.

R. M. Andrews, Patterns of Growth in Reptiles, Biology of the Reptilia. Physiology D. Physiological Ecology, vol.13, pp.273-320, 1982.

, Annual and final Project Reports, 2007.

J. D. Arendt, D. N. Reznick, and A. López-sepulcre, Replicated origin of femalebiased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Evolution, International Journal of Organic Evolution, vol.68, issue.8, pp.2343-2356, 2014.

B. A. Arnow, J. E. Desmond, L. L. Banner, G. H. Glover, A. Solomon et al., Brain activation and sexual arousal in healthy, heterosexual males, Brain, vol.125, issue.5, pp.1014-1023, 2002.


G. Arnqvist and L. Rowe, Antagonistic coevolution between the sexes in a group of insects, Nature, issue.6873, pp.787-789, 2002.

F. Aubret, X. Bonnet, R. Shine, and O. Lourdais, Fat is sexy for females but not males: the influence of body reserves on reproduction in snakes (Vipera aspis), Hormones and Behavior, vol.42, issue.2, pp.135-147, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00191393

A. Badiane, C. Matos, and X. Santos, Uncovering environmental, land-use and fire effects on the distribution of a low-dispersal species, the Hermann's tortoise Testudo hermanni, Amphibia-Reptilia, vol.38, issue.1, pp.67-77, 2017.


A. V. Badyaev, Growing apart: an ontogenetic perspective on the evolution of sexual size dimorphism, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.17, issue.8, pp.369-378, 2002.

, , pp.2569-2576

N. W. Bailey and M. Zuk, Same-sex sexual behavior and evolution, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.24, issue.8, pp.439-446, 2009.

M. C. Baker, M. S. Baker, and L. M. Tilghman, Differing effects of isolation on evolution of bird songs: examples from an island-mainland comparison of three species: Differentiation Of Island Bird Songs, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.89, issue.2, pp.331-342, 2006.

J. Bakker, S. Honda, N. Harada, and J. Balthazart, Sexual partner preference requires a functional aromatase (cyp19) gene in male mice, Hormones and Behavior, vol.42, issue.2, pp.158-171, 2002.

J. Bakker, D. Mees, C. Douhard, Q. Balthazart, J. Gabant et al., Alpha-fetoprotein protects the developing female mouse brain from masculinization and defeminization by estrogens, Nature Neuroscience, vol.9, issue.2, pp.220-226, 2006.

J. Ballouard, S. Caron, T. Lafon, L. Servant, B. Devaux et al., , 2013.

, Fibrocement slabs as useful tools to monitor juvenile reptiles: a study in a tortoise species, Amphibia-Reptilia, vol.34, issue.1, pp.1-10

J. Balthazart, C. Castagna, and G. F. Ball, Aromatase inhibition blocks the activation and sexual differentiation of appetitive male sexual behavior in Japanese quail, Behavioral Neuroscience, vol.111, issue.2, pp.381-397, 1997.

A. Banks and N. K. Gartrell, Hormones and sexual orientation: a questionable link, Journal of Homosexuality, vol.28, issue.3-4, pp.247-268, 1995.


F. Barje, T. Slimani, E. H. El-mouden, F. Lagarde, X. Bonnet et al., Shrewd shrikes and spiny shrubs: a calamity for hatchling Moorish tortoises (Testudo graeca graeca), Amphibia-Reptilia, vol.26, issue.1, pp.113-115, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00187315


K. A. Bjorndal, A. B. Bolten, and H. R. Martins, Estimates of survival probabilities for oceanic-stage loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the North Atlantic, Fishery Bulletin, vol.101, pp.732-736, 2003.

K. Bjorndal, A. Bolten, and M. Chaloupka, Survival probability estimates for immature green turtles Chelonia mydas in the Bahamas, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.252, pp.273-281, 2003.

S. J. Blamires, R. Spencer, P. King, and M. B. Thompson, Population parameters and life-table analysis of two coexisting freshwater turtles: are the Bellinger River turtle populations threatened?, Wildlife Research, vol.32, issue.4, 2005.

J. E. Blyth and A. S. Gilburn, Extreme promiscuity in a mating system dominated by sexual conflict, Journal of Insect Behavior, vol.19, issue.4, pp.447-455, 2006.


X. Bonnet, F. Brischoux, C. Bonnet, P. Plichon, and T. Fauvel, Coastal Nurseries and Their Importance for Conservation of Sea Kraits, PLoS ONE, vol.9, issue.3, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01344798

X. Bonnet, F. Lagarde, B. T. Henen, J. Corbin, K. A. Nagy et al., Sexual dimorphism in steppe tortoises (Testudo horsfieldii): Influence of the environment and sexual selection on body shape and mobility, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.72, issue.3, pp.357-372, 2001.


X. Bonnet, G. Naulleau, and R. Shine, The dangers of leaving home: dispersal and mortality in snakes, Biological Conservation, vol.89, issue.1, pp.39-50, 1999.

, , pp.140-142

C. Bordier, C. Saraux, V. A. Viblanc, H. Gachot-neveu, M. Beaugey et al., Inter-annual variability of fledgling sex ratio in king penguins, PLoS ONE, issue.12, p.9, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01095097

P. L. Brennan and R. O. Prum, The limits of sexual conflict in the narrow sense: new insights from waterfowl biology, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, vol.367, pp.2324-2338, 1600.



C. M. Bull, Monogamy in lizards. Behavioural Processes, vol.51, pp.7-20, 2000.

L. Burgevin, U. Friberg, and A. A. Maklakov, Intersexual correlation for samesex sexual behaviour in an insect, Animal Behaviour, vol.85, issue.4, pp.759-762, 2013.


K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach, 2002.

F. R. Cagle, A System of Marking Turtles for Future Identification, Copeia, issue.3, p.170, 1939.

M. J. Caley and L. Schwarzkopf, Complex growth rate evolution in a latitudinally widespread species. Evolution, International Journal of Organic Evolution, vol.58, issue.4, pp.862-869, 2004.

A. Camperio-ciani, F. Corna, and C. Capiluppi, Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity, Proceedings. Biological Sciences, pp.2217-2221, 1554.


S. Canessa, P. Genta, R. Jesu, L. Lamagni, F. Oneto et al., Challenges of monitoring reintroduction outcomes: Insights from the conservation breeding program of an endangered turtle in Italy, Biological Conservation, vol.204, pp.128-133, 2016.

J. Castanet, Les méthodes d'estimation de l'âge chez les chéloniens, Mésogée, vol.48, pp.21-28, 1988.

H. Caswell, Matrix population models. Construction, analysis and interpretation, pp.722-722, 2001.

G. Catsadorakis and M. Malakou, Conservation and management issues of Prespa National Park, pp.175-196, 1997.

H. Cayuela, D. Arsovski, J. Thirion, E. Bonnaire, J. Pichenot et al., Contrasting patterns of environmental fluctuation contribute to divergent life histories among amphibian populations, Ecology, vol.97, issue.4, pp.980-991, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01302574

M. Chaloupka, Polyphasic Growth in Pelagic Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Copeia, issue.2, p.516, 1998.

M. Chaloupka and C. Limpus, Estimates of sex-and age-class-specific survival probabilities for a southern Great Barrier Reef green sea turtle population, 2005.

, Marine Biology, vol.146, issue.6, pp.1251-1261

M. Chaloupka and G. R. Zug, A polyphasic growth function for the endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys kempii, Fishery Bulletin, issue.4, p.95, 1997.

T. Chapman, G. Arnqvist, J. Bangham, and L. Rowe, Sexual conflict, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.18, issue.1, pp.4-6, 2003.

E. L. Charnov, On evolution of age of maturity and the adult lifespan, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.3, issue.1-2, pp.139-144, 1990.

K. Clancy, Survival of the Friendliest, Nautilus, issue.046, 2017.

T. H. Clutton-brock and G. A. Parker, Sexual coercion in animal societies, Animal Behaviour, vol.49, issue.5, pp.1345-1365, 1995.

T. Clutton-brock and P. Langley, Persistent courtship reduces male and female longevity in captive tsetse flies Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae), Behavioral Ecology, vol.8, issue.4, pp.392-395, 1997.

J. D. Congdon, A. E. Dunham, and W. D. Tinkle, Energy Budgets and Life Histories of Reptiles, Biology of the Reptilia. Physiology D. Physiological Ecology, vol.13, 1982.

J. D. Congdon, A. E. Dunham, . Van-loben, and R. C. Sels, Delayed Sexual Maturity and Demographics of Blanding's Turtles (Emydoidea blandingii): Implications for Conservation and Management of Long-Lived Organisms, Conservation Biology, vol.7, issue.4, pp.826-833, 1993.

D. C. Cunnington and R. J. Brooks, Bet-hedging theory and eigenelasticity: a comparison of the life histories of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.74, issue.2, pp.291-296, 1996.

S. R. Dall, J. M. Mcnamara, N. Wedell, and D. J. Hosken, Debating Sexual Selection and Mating Strategies, Science, issue.5774, pp.689-697, 2006.


C. Darwin, On the Origin of the Species, 1859.

C. Darwin, The descent of man and selection in relation to sex, vol.1, 2009.


C. B. Davenport, Human Growth Curve, The Journal of General Physiology, vol.10, issue.2, pp.205-216, 1926.

R. L. Delong, S. R. Melin, J. L. Laake, P. Morris, A. J. Orr et al., , 2017.

, Age-and sex-specific survival of California sea lions

, Marine Mammal Science, vol.33, issue.4, pp.1097-1125


J. M. Dietz, A. J. Baker, and D. Miglioretti, Seasonal variation in reproduction, juvenile growth, and adult body mass in golden lion tamarins, 1994.

, American Journal of Primatology, vol.34, issue.2, pp.115-132


S. Djordjevi?, M. Djuraki?, A. Golubovi?, R. Ajti?, L. Tomovi? et al., , 2011.

, Sexual body size and body shape dimorphism of Testudo hermanni in central and eastern Serbia, Amphibia Reptilia, vol.32, issue.4, pp.445-458


S. Djordjevi? and K. Ljubisavljevi?, Hermann's tortoise Testudo hermanni Gmelin 1789, pp.151-157, 2015.

S. Djordjevi?, L. Tomovi?, A. Golubovi?, A. Simovi?, B. Sterijovski et al., Geographic (in-)variability of gender-specific traits in Hermann's tortoise, Herpetological Journal, vol.23, pp.67-73, 2013.

C. K. Dodd and M. J. Dreslik, Habitat disturbances differentially affect individual growth rates in a long-lived turtle, Journal of Zoology, vol.275, issue.1, pp.18-25, 2008.


C. M. Donihue, A. Herrel, A. Fabre, A. Kamath, A. J. Geneva et al., Hurricane-induced selection on the morphology of an island lizard, Nature, vol.1, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02105773

A. E. Dunham and D. B. Miles, Patterns of Covariation in Life History Traits of Squamate Reptiles: The Effects of Size and Phylogeny Reconsidered, The American Naturalist, vol.126, issue.2, pp.231-257, 1985.

L. J. Eberhart-phillips, C. Küpper, T. E. Miller, M. Cruz-lópez, K. H. Maher et al., Sex-specific early survival drives adult sex ratio bias in snowy plovers and impacts mating system and population growth, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.114, issue.27, pp.5474-5481, 2017.


S. Emlen and L. Oring, Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems, Science, vol.197, issue.4300, pp.215-223, 1977.

K. C. Engel, L. Männer, M. Ayasse, and S. Steiger, Acceptance threshold theory can explain occurrence of homosexual behaviour, Biology Letters, vol.11, issue.1, 2015.

J. J. Enneson and J. D. Litzgus, Using long-term data and a stage-classified matrix to assess conservation strategies for an endangered turtle (Clemmys guttata), Biological Conservation, issue.6, pp.1560-1568, 2008.


S. P. Epperly, M. L. Snover, J. Braun-mcneill, W. Witzell, N. Brown et al., Stock assessment of loggerhead sea turtles of the western North Atlantic, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFSSEFSC, vol.455, pp.3-66, 2001.

M. S. Exton, T. H. Krüger, N. Bursch, P. Haake, W. Knapp et al., Endocrine response to masturbation-induced orgasm in healthy men following a 3-week sexual abstinence, World Journal of Urology, vol.19, issue.5, pp.377-382, 2001.


S. Fitzpatrick, Intraspecific Variation in Wing Length and Male Plumage Coloration with Migratory Behaviour in Continental and Island Populations, Journal of Avian Biology, vol.29, issue.3, pp.248-256, 1998.

I. Folstad and A. J. Karter, Parasites, Bright Males, and the Immunocompetence Handicap, vol.139, pp.603-622, 1992.

P. Forslund and T. Pärt, Age and reproduction in birds -hypotheses and tests, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.10, issue.9, pp.89141-89148, 1995.

N. B. Frazer, Preliminary Estimates of Survivorship for Wild Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta), Journal of Herpetology, vol.21, issue.3, 1987.

N. B. Frazer, J. W. Gibbons, and J. L. Greene, Life tables for a slider population, 1990.

, Life-history and ecology of the slider turtle, pp.183-200

D. C. Washington,

N. B. Frazer, J. W. Gibbons, and J. L. Greene, Life History and Demography of the Common Mud Turtle Kinosternon subrubrum in South Carolina, USA. Ecology, vol.72, issue.6, pp.2218-2231, 1991.

C. R. Friesen, E. J. Uhrig, M. K. Squire, R. T. Mason, and P. L. Brennan, Sexual conflict over mating in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) as indicated by experimental manipulation of genitalia, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.281, pp.20132694-20132694, 1774.


U. Fritz and Y. Chiari, Conservation actions for European pond turtles -a summary of current efforts in distinct European countries, Herpetology Notes, vol.6, p.60, 2013.

G. Fryer, Endemism, speciation and adaptive radiation in great lakes, Environmental Biology of Fishes, vol.45, issue.2, pp.109-131, 1996.


J. M. Gaillard and N. G. Yoccoz, Temporal variation in survival of mammals: A case of environmental canalization?, Ecology, vol.84, issue.12, pp.3294-3306, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427404


P. Galeotti, R. Sacchi, D. P. Rosa, and M. Fasola, Olfactory Discrimination of Species, Sex, and Sexual Maturity by the Hermann's Tortoise Testudo hermanni, Copeia, issue.4, pp.980-985, 2007.

E. Gianoli and F. Valladares, Studying phenotypic plasticity: the advantages of a broad approach, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.105, issue.1, pp.1-7, 2012.


A. S. Gliozzi, C. Guiot, P. Delsanto, and D. A. Iordache, A novel approach to the analysis of human growth, Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, vol.9, issue.1, 2012.

K. L. Goldey and S. M. Van-anders, Sexual Modulation of Testosterone: Insights for Humans from Across Species, Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, vol.1, issue.2, pp.93-123, 2015.

A. Golubovi?, Ontogenetic shift of antipredator behaviour in Hermann's tortoises, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol.69, issue.7, pp.1201-1208, 2015.


A. Golubovi?, M. Andjelkovi?, D. Arsovski, A. Vujovi?, V. Ikovi? et al., Skills or strength-how tortoises cope with dense vegetation?, Acta Ethologica, vol.17, issue.3, pp.141-147, 2014.

A. Golubovi?, D. Arsovski, R. Ajti?, L. Tomovi?, and X. Bonnet, Moving in the real world: Tortoises take the plunge to cross steep steps, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.108, issue.4, pp.719-726, 2013.

A. Golubovi?, X. Bonnet, S. Djordjevi?, M. Djuraki?, and L. Tomovi?, Variations in righting behaviour across Hermann's tortoise populations: Righting behaviour in Hermann's tortoise, Journal of Zoology, vol.291, issue.1, pp.69-75, 2013.

K. Gotthard, Growth strategies of ectothermic animals in temperate environments, Environment and animal development: Genes, life histories and plasticity, pp.287-303, 2001.

W. R. Gould and J. D. Nichols, Estimation of temporal variability of survival in animal populations, Ecology, vol.79, issue.7, p.79, 1998.

P. R. Grant, Plumage and the Evolution of Birds on Islands, Systematic Biology, vol.14, issue.1, pp.47-52, 1965.

P. R. Grant and B. R. Grant, Evolution of Character Displacement in Darwin's Finches, Science, issue.5784, pp.224-226, 2006.


P. R. Grant, B. R. Grant, and K. Petren, A population founded by a single pair of individuals: Establishment, expansion, and evolution, Microevolution Rate, Pattern, Process, pp.359-382, 2001.

D. Springer,


R. B. Grant and P. R. Grant, What Darwin's Finches Can Teach Us about the Evolutionary Origin and Regulation of Biodiversity, BioScience, vol.53, issue.10, pp.965-975, 2003.

P. J. Greenwood, Mating Systems, Philopatry and Dispersal in Birds and Mammals, Animal Behaviour, vol.28, pp.1140-1162, 1980.

A. Hailey and R. E. Willemsen, Changes in the status of tortoise populations in Greece, Biodiversity & Conservation, vol.12, issue.5, pp.991-1011, 1984.


A. Hailey, How far do animals move? Routine movements in a tortoise, 1989.

, Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.67, issue.1, pp.208-215

A. Hailey, Adult survival and recruitment and the explanation of an uneven sex ratio in a tortoise population, Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.68, issue.3, pp.547-555, 1990.

A. Hailey and I. M. Coulson, The growth pattern of the African tortoise Geochelone pardalis and other chelonians, Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.77, issue.2, pp.181-193, 1999.

A. Hailey and S. Loumbouridis, Population ecology and conservation of tortoises: Demographic aspects of reproduction in Testudo hermanni, 1990.

, Herpetological Journal, vol.1, pp.425-434

A. Hailey and R. E. Willemsen, Population density and adult sex ratio of the tortoise Testudo hermanni in Greece: evidence for intrinsic population regulation, p.251, 2000.

S. Hamao and K. Ueda, Simplified song in an island population of the bush warbler Cettia diphone, Journal of Ethology, vol.18, issue.1, pp.53-57, 2000.


S. Hamel, J. Gaillard, N. G. Yoccoz, S. Albon, S. D. Côté et al., Cohort variation in individual body mass dissipates with age in large herbivores, Ecological Monographs, vol.86, issue.4, pp.517-543, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02012375


S. Hamel, J. Gaillard, and N. G. Yoccoz, Introduction to: Individual heterogeneity -the causes and consequences of a fundamental biological process, Oikos, vol.127, issue.5, pp.643-647, 2018.

B. Hare, V. Wobber, and R. Wrangham, The self-domestication hypothesis: evolution of bonobo psychology is due to selection against aggression, Animal Behaviour, vol.83, issue.3, pp.573-585, 2012.

K. K. Hastings, L. A. Jemison, T. S. Gelatt, J. L. Laake, G. W. Pendleton et al., Cohort effects and spatial variation in age-specific survival of Steller sea lions from southeastern Alaska, Ecosphere, vol.2, issue.10, 2011.

P. Y. Henry, J. P. Nougarède, R. Pradel, and M. Cheylan, Survival rates and demography of the Hermann's tortoise Testudo hermanni in Corsica, 1999.

S. S. Heppell, Application of Life-History Theory and Population Model Analysis to Turtle Conservation, Copeia, issue.2, 1998.

S. S. Heppell, L. B. Crowder, and D. T. Crouse, Models to Evaluate Headstarting as a Management Tool for Long-Lived Turtles, Ecological Applications, vol.6, issue.2, pp.556-565, 1996.

S. S. Heppell, C. Limpus, D. T. Crouse, N. B. Frazer, and L. B. Crowder, Population model analysis for the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, 1996.

. Queensland, Wildlife Research, vol.23, issue.2

A. Herrel, K. Huyghe, B. Vanhooydonck, T. Backeljau, K. Breugelmans et al., Rapid large-scale evolutionary divergence in morphology and performance associated with exploitation of a different dietary resource, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.105, issue.12, pp.4792-4795, 2008.


B. Holland and W. R. Rice, Perspective: Chase-Away Sexual Selection: Antagonistic Seduction Versus Resistance, Evolution, vol.52, issue.1, pp.1-7, 1998.


J. L. Hoskins, M. G. Ritchie, and N. W. Bailey, A test of genetic models for the evolutionary maintenance of same-sex sexual behaviour, Proceedings. Biological Sciences, vol.282, 1809.

P. C. Hughes and J. M. Tanner, A longitudinal study of the growth of the blackhooded rat: methods of measurement and rates of growth for skull, limbs, pelvis, nose-rump and tail lengths, Journal of Anatomy, vol.106, pp.349-370, 1970.

K. Huyghe, M. Small, B. Vanhooydonck, A. Herrel, Z. Tadi? et al., Genetic divergence among sympatric colour morphs of the Dalmatian wall lizard (Podarcis melisellensis), Genetica, vol.138, issue.3, pp.387-393, 2010.


K. Huyghe, A. Herrel, D. Adriaens, Z. Tadi?, and R. Van-damme, It is all in the head: morphological basis for differences in bite force among colour morphs of the Dalmatian wall lizard, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.96, issue.1, pp.13-22, 2009.

K. Huyghe, B. Vanhooydonck, A. Herrel, Z. Tadi?, and R. Van-damme, , 2007.

, Morphology, performance, behavior and ecology of three color morphs in males of the lizard <i>Podarcis melisellensis<i/>, Integrative and Comparative Biology, vol.47, issue.2, pp.211-220

A. Ibáñez, P. López, and J. Martín, Discrimination of conspecifics' chemicals may allow Spanish terrapins to find better partners and avoid competitors, Animal Behaviour, vol.83, issue.4, pp.1107-1113, 2012.


. Iucn, IUCN Red list of threatened species, 2017.

J. B. Iverson, Patterns of survivorship in turtles (order Testudines), Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.69, issue.2, pp.385-391, 1991.

E. A. Jannini, R. Blanchard, A. Camperio-ciani, and J. Bancroft, Male homosexuality: nature or culture?, The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol.7, issue.10, pp.3245-3253, 2010.

E. A. Jannini, A. Burri, P. Jern, and G. Novelli, Genetics of Human Sexual Behavior: Where We Are, Where We Are Going, Sexual Medicine Reviews, vol.3, issue.2, pp.65-77, 2015.

M. P. Jensen, C. D. Allen, T. Eguchi, I. P. Bell, E. L. Lacasella et al., Environmental Warming and Feminization of One of the Largest Sea Turtle Populations in the World, Current Biology, vol.28, issue.1, pp.154-159, 2018.

M. Jobling, O. H. Meløy, J. Santos, and B. Christiansen, The compensatory growth response of the Atlantic cod: effects of nutritional history, Aquaculture International, vol.2, issue.2, pp.75-90, 1994.

J. L. Johns, J. A. Roberts, D. L. Clark, and G. W. Uetz, Love bites: male fang use during coercive mating in wolf spiders, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol.64, issue.1, p.13, 2009.

A. Jonsson and B. Ebenman, Are Certain Life Histories Particularly Prone to Local Extinction?, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.209, issue.4, pp.455-463, 2001.


J. T. Jorgenson, M. Festa-bianchet, J. Gaillard, and W. D. Wishart, Effects of Age, Sex, Disease, and Density on Survival of Bighorn Sheep, Ecology, vol.78, issue.4, p.78, 1997.

C. Keller, C. Diaz-paniagua, and A. C. Andreu, Survival Rates and Causes of Mortality of Testudo graeca Hatchlings in Southwestern Spain, Journal of Herpetology, vol.32, issue.2, 1998.

E. D. Ketterson, J. Nolan, and . Val, Adaptation, Exaptation, and Constraint: A Hormonal Perspective, The American Naturalist, vol.154, issue.S1, pp.4-25, 1999.


R. B. King, Population Ecology of the Lake Erie Water Snake, Nerodia sipedon insularum, Copeia, issue.3, pp.757-772, 1986.

R. B. King, Color Pattern Polymorphism in the Lake Erie water snake, Nerodia sipedon insularum. Evolution, International Journal of Organic Evolution, vol.41, issue.2, pp.241-255, 1987.

R. B. King and R. M. Bowden, Seasonal, Condition-Dependent, and Individual Variation in Testosterone in a Natricine Snake, Journal of Herpetology, vol.47, issue.1, pp.179-183, 2013.

R. B. King, K. M. Stanford, P. C. Jones, and K. Bekker, Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size, PLOS ONE, vol.11, issue.1, 2016.

, Turtle conservation, 2000.

C. D. Knott, M. Emery-thompson, R. M. Stumpf, and M. H. Mcintyre, Female reproductive strategies in orangutans, evidence for female choice and counterstrategies to infanticide in a species with frequent sexual coercion, Proceedings. Biological Sciences, vol.277, pp.105-113, 1678.


H. Kokko and R. A. Johnstone, Why is mutual mate choice not the norm? Operational sex ratios, sex roles and the evolution of sexually dimorphic and monomorphic signalling, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.357, pp.319-330, 1419.

H. Kokko and P. Monaghan, Predicting the direction of sexual selection, Ecology Letters, vol.4, issue.2, pp.159-165, 2001.

J. J. Kolbe, Effects of Hind-Limb Length and Perch Diameter on Clinging Performance in Anolis Lizards from the British Virgin Islands, Journal of Herpetology, vol.49, issue.2, pp.284-290, 2015.

J. Komdeur, S. Daan, J. Tinbergen, and C. Mateman, Extreme adaptive modification in sex ratio of the Seychelles warbler's eggs, Nature, vol.385, issue.6616, pp.522-525, 1997.

C. Kvarnemo and I. Ahnesjö, The dynamics of operational sex ratios and competition for mates, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol.11, issue.10, pp.404-408, 1996.

, , pp.10056-10058

R. C. Lacy, P. S. Miller, and K. Traylor-holzer, Vortex (Version 10), 2014.

F. Lagarde, M. Guillon, L. Dubroca, X. Bonnet, K. Ben-kaddour et al., Slowness and acceleration: a new method to quantify the activity budget of chelonians, Animal Behaviour, vol.75, issue.1, pp.319-329, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00260149


F. Lagarde, X. Bonnet, B. Henen, K. Nagy, J. Corbin et al., Plasma steroid and nutrient levels during the active season in wild Testudo horsfieldi, General and Comparative Endocrinology, vol.134, issue.2, pp.139-146, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00189677

F. Lagarde, X. Bonnet, B. T. Henen, J. Corbin, K. A. Nagy et al., Sexual size dimorphism in steppe tortoises (Testudo horsfieldi): growth, maturity, and individual variation, Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.79, issue.8, pp.1433-1441, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00192448

F. Lagarde, X. Bonnet, K. Nagy, B. Henen, J. Corbin et al., , 2002.

, A short spring before a long jump: the ecological challenge to the steppe tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi), Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.80, issue.3, pp.493-502


S. Lamichhaney, J. Berglund, M. S. Almén, K. Maqbool, M. Grabherr et al., Evolution of Darwin's finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing, Nature, vol.518, issue.7539, pp.371-375, 2015.


R. Lange, K. Reinhardt, N. K. Michiels, and N. Anthes, Functions, diversity, and evolution of traumatic mating, Biological Reviews, vol.88, issue.3, pp.585-601, 2013.


J. H. Lawton, Are There General Laws in Ecology? Oikos, vol.84, p.177, 1999.

A. Lazarevski, Klimata vo Makedonija, 1993.

,. Le-galliard, P. S. Fitze, R. Ferriere, and J. Clobert, Sex ratio bias, male aggression, and population collapse in lizards, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.102, issue.50, pp.18231-18236, 2005.


J. Lebreton and R. Pradel, Re-Evaluation of Adult Survival of Black-Headed Gulls (Larus ridibundus) in Presence of Recapture Heterogeneity, The Auk, vol.115, issue.1, pp.85-95, 1998.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02126426

J. Lebreton and R. Pradel, Re-Evaluation of Adult Survival of Black-Headed Gulls (Larus ridibundus) in Presence of Recapture Heterogeneity, The Auk, vol.115, issue.1, pp.85-95, 1998.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02126426

S. R. Leigh, Evolution of human growth spurts, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol.101, issue.4, p.2, 1996.

C. Lenihan and D. V. Vuren, Growth and survival of juvenile yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris), Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.74, issue.2, pp.297-302, 1996.

B. Livoreil, Distribution of the Endangered Hermann's tortoise Testudo hermanni hermanni in Var, France, and recommendations for its conservation, 2009.

, Oryx, vol.43, issue.2, pp.299-305

K. Ljubisavljevi?, G. D?uki?, and M. L. Kalezi?, The commercial export of the land tortoises (Testudo spp.) from the territory of the former Yugoslavia, NorthWestern Journal of Zoology, vol.7, pp.250-260, 2011.

K. Ljubisavljevi?, G. D?uki?, T. D. Vukov, and M. L. Kalezi?, Distribution patterns of Hermann's Tortoise Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789, in the region of former Yugoslavia (Testudines: Testudinidae), Herpetozoa, vol.26, pp.125-138, 2014.

D. M. Logue, S. Mishra, D. Mccaffrey, D. Ball, and W. H. Cade, A behavioral syndrome linking courtship behavior toward males and females predicts reproductive success from a single mating in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa, Behavioral Ecology, vol.20, issue.4, pp.781-788, 2009.


A. Lolavar and J. Wyneken, Effect of rainfall on loggerhead turtle nest temperatures, sand temperatures and hatchling sex, Endangered Species Research, vol.28, issue.3, pp.235-247, 2015.

S. Longepierre, A. Hailey, and C. Grenot, Home range area in the tortoise Testudo hermanni in relation to habitat complexity: implications for conservation of biodiversity, Biodiversity & Conservation, vol.10, issue.7, pp.1131-1140, 2001.


J. B. Losos, T. R. Jackman, A. Larson, K. De-queiroz, and L. Rodríguez-schettino, Contingency and determinism in replicated adaptive radiations of island lizards, Science, issue.5359, pp.2115-2118, 1998.


J. C. Lui and J. Baron, Mechanisms Limiting Body Growth in Mammals, Endocrine Reviews, vol.32, issue.3, pp.422-440, 2011.

L. Luiselli, M. Capula, R. L. Burke, L. Rugiero, and D. Capizzi, Sighting frequency decreases over two decades in three populations of Testudo hermanni from central Italy, Biodiversity and Conservation, vol.23, issue.12, pp.3091-3100, 2014.


V. Lummaa and T. Clutton-brock, Early development, survival and reproduction in humans, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.17, issue.3, pp.141-147, 2002.

, , pp.2414-2418

G. R. Macfarlane, S. P. Blomberg, G. Kaplan, and L. J. Rogers, Same-sex sexual behavior in birds: expression is related to social mating system and state of development at hatching, Behavioral Ecology, vol.18, issue.1, pp.21-33, 2007.


R. Macip-ríos, V. H. Sustaita-rodriguez, and G. Casas-andreu, Evidence of Pelvic and Nonpelvic Constraint on Egg Size in Two Species of Kinosternon from Mexico, Chelonian Conservation and Biology, vol.12, issue.2, pp.218-226, 2013.


A. E. Magurran and B. H. Seghers, A Cost of Sexual Harassment in the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, vol.258, pp.89-52, 1351.

N. B. Metcalfe and P. Monaghan, Compensation for a bad start: grow now, pay later?, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.16, issue.5, pp.254-260, 2001.

, , pp.2124-2127

J. Michels, S. N. Gorb, and K. Reinhardt, Reduction of female copulatory damage by resilin represents evidence for tolerance in sexual conflict, Journal of The Royal Society Interface, vol.12, issue.104, 2015.


T. E. Miller, A. K. Shaw, B. D. Inouye, and M. G. Neubert, Sex-Biased Dispersal and the Speed of Two-Sex Invasions, The American Naturalist, vol.177, issue.5, pp.549-561, 2011.

J. C. Mitchell, Population Ecology and Life Histories of the Freshwater Turtles Chrysemys picta and Sternotherus odoratus in an Urban Lake, Herpetological Monographs, vol.2, p.40, 1988.

S. Mitrus, Historia ?zyciowa ?zó?wia b?otnego, Emys orbicularis -implikacje dla ochrony gatunków d?ugoz?yja?cych (PhD), 2002.

S. Mitrus and M. Zemanek, Survivorship of the European pond turtle Emys orbicularis in central Poland, Proceeding of 3rd International symposium on Emys orbicularis, pp.103-107, 2004.

S. Mitrus, Headstarting in European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis): Does it work?, Amphibia-Reptilia, vol.26, issue.3, pp.333-341, 2005.


M. N. Muller, S. M. Kahlenberg, M. Emery-thompson, and R. W. Wrangham, , 2007.

, Male coercion and the costs of promiscuous mating for female chimpanzees, Proceedings. Biological Sciences, vol.274, pp.1009-1014, 1612.


B. S. Mustanski, M. L. Chivers, and J. M. Bailey, A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation, Annual Review of Sex Research, vol.13, pp.89-140, 2002.

R. J. Nelson, An introduction to behavioral endocrinology, 2005.

P. H. Niewiarowski and W. Roosenburg, Reciprocal Transplant Reveals Sources of Variation in Growth Rates of the Lizard Sceloporus Undulatus, Ecology, vol.74, issue.7, pp.1992-2002, 1993.

S. Nikoli?, A. Golubovi?, X. Bonnet, D. Arsovski, J. Ballouard et al., Why and apparently prosperous subspecies needs strict protection? The case of Testudo hermanni boettgeri from the central Balkans, 2018.

, Herpetological Conservation and Biology

Y. Noy and D. Sklan, Posthatch Development in Poultry, The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, vol.6, issue.3, pp.344-354, 1997.

A. Olivier, C. Barbraud, E. Rosecchi, C. Germain, and M. Cheylan, Assessing spatial and temporal population dynamics of cryptic species: an example with the European pond turtle, Ecological Applications, vol.20, issue.4, pp.993-1004, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00527755

A. Olivier, Ecologie, traits d'histoire de vie et conservation d'une population de cistude d, 2002.

N. T. Owen-ashley, D. Hasselquist, and J. C. Wingfield, Androgens and the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis: unraveling direct and indirect pathways of immunosuppression in song sparrows, The American Naturalist, vol.164, issue.4, pp.490-505, 2004.

E. Paradis, G. Guedon, and R. Pradel, Estimation of Sex-and Age-Related Survival Rates in a Microtine Population, The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol.57, issue.1, 1993.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ird-02062359

G. A. Parker, Sexual selection and sexual conflict, 1979.

. London,

G. A. Parker, Sexual conflict over mating and fertilization: an overview, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.361, pp.235-259, 1466.

A. Patrício, X. Velez-zuazo, C. Diez, R. Dam, and A. Sabat, Survival probability of immature green turtles in two foraging grounds at, 2011.

, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.440, pp.217-227

M. Peinert, B. Wipfler, G. Jetschke, T. Kleinteich, S. N. Gorb et al., Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta), Scientific Reports, vol.6, p.25052, 2016.

R. H. Peters, The ecological implications of body size, 1983.

J. B. Pfaller, M. Chaloupka, A. B. Bolten, and K. A. Bjorndal, Phylogeny, biogeography and methodology: a meta-analytic perspective on heterogeneity in adult marine turtle survival rates, Scientific Reports, vol.8, issue.1, 2018.


C. Pieau, Temperature variation and sex determination in reptiles, BioEssays, vol.18, issue.1, pp.19-26, 1996.

D. A. Pike, L. Pizzatto, B. A. Pike, and R. Shine, Estimating survival rates of uncatchable animals: the myth of high juvenile mortality in reptiles, Ecology, vol.89, issue.3, pp.607-611, 2008.

T. Pizzari and T. R. Birkhead, Female feral fowl eject sperm of subdominant males, Nature, issue.6788, pp.787-789, 2000.

F. Plard, N. G. Yoccoz, C. Bonenfant, F. Klein, C. Warnant et al., Disentangling direct and growth-mediated influences on early survival: a mechanistic approach, The Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.84, issue.5, pp.1363-1372, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02018987


A. Poiani and A. F. Dixson, Animal homosexuality: a biosocial perspective, 2010.

J. R. Poschadel, Y. Meyer-lucht, and M. Plath, Response to Chemical Cues from Conspecifics Reflects Male Mating Preference for Large Females and Avoidance of Large Competitors in the European Pond Turtle, Emys orbicularis, Behaviour, vol.143, issue.5, pp.569-587, 2006.

Q. Rahman, The neurodevelopment of human sexual orientation, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol.29, issue.7, pp.1057-1066, 2005.


A. A. Rasheed, K. Hambley, G. Chan, C. A. Rosa, B. Larison et al., Persistence of antipredator behavior in an island population of California quail, Ethology, vol.124, issue.3, pp.155-160, 2017.

D. Réale, P. Boussès, and J. Chapuis, Female-biased mortality induced by male sexual harassment in a feral sheep population, Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.74, issue.10, pp.1812-1818, 1996.

K. Reinhardt, R. Naylor, and M. T. Siva-jothy, Reducing a cost of traumatic insemination: female bedbugs evolve a unique organ, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.270, pp.2371-2375, 1531.


H. U. Reyer, G. Frei, and C. Som, Cryptic female choice: frogs reduce clutch size when amplexed by undesired males, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.266, pp.2101-2107, 1433.

G. Rice, C. Anderson, N. Risch, and G. Ebers, Male homosexuality: absence of linkage to microsatellite markers at Xq28, Science, vol.284, issue.5414, pp.665-667, 1999.

R. C. Rodríguez-caro, E. Graciá, J. D. Anadón, and A. Gimenez, Maintained effects of fire on individual growth and survival rates in a spur-thighed tortoise population, European Journal of Wildlife Research, vol.59, issue.6, pp.911-913, 2013.


M. Rogner, European pond turtle Emys orbicularis, 2009.

A. Roselló-díez and A. L. Joyner, Regulation of Long Bone Growth in Vertebrates; It Is Time to Catch Up, Endocrine Reviews, vol.36, issue.6, pp.646-680, 2015.


A. Roulin and N. Salamin, Insularity and the evolution of melanism, sexual dichromatism and body size in the worldwide-distributed barn owl, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.23, issue.5, pp.925-934, 2010.

L. Rowe, The costs of mating and mate choice in water striders, Animal Behaviour, vol.48, issue.5, pp.1049-1056, 1994.

L. Rozylowicz and M. Dobre, Assessing the threatened status of Testudo hermanni boettgeri Mojsisovics, 1889 (Reptilia: Testudines: Testudinidae) population from Romania, North-Western Journal of Zoology, vol.6, pp.190-202, 2010.

L. Rozylowicz and V. D. Popescu, Habitat selection and movement ecology of eastern Hermann's tortoises in a rural Romanian landscape, European Journal of Wildlife Research, vol.59, issue.1, pp.47-55, 2013.

D. I. Rubenstein, Ecology and sociality in horses and zebras, Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution, pp.282-302, 1986.

R. Sacchi, D. Pellitteri-rosa, M. Marchesi, P. Galeotti, and M. Fasola, A Comparison among Sexual Signals in Courtship of European Tortoises, Journal of Herpetology, vol.47, issue.2, pp.215-221, 2013.

K. Sakaguchi, M. Oki, S. Honma, H. Uehara, and T. Hasegawa, The lower salivary testosterone levels among unmarried and married sexually active men, Journal of Ethology, vol.25, issue.3, pp.223-229, 2007.

I. Scharf and O. Y. Martin, Same-sex sexual behavior in insects and arachnids: prevalence, causes, and consequences, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol.67, issue.11, pp.1719-1730, 2013.

C. J. Schwarz and W. T. Stobo, Estimation of juvenile survival, adult survival, and age-specific pupping probabilities for the female grey seal (Halichoerus gryprus) on Sable Island from capture-recapture data, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol.57, issue.1, pp.247-253, 2000.

R. Scott, R. Marsh, and G. C. Hays, Life in the really slow lane: loggerhead sea turtles mature late relative to other reptiles: Reptile age at maturity, Functional Ecology, vol.26, issue.1, pp.227-235, 2012.

J. M. Setchell, P. C. Lee, E. J. Wickings, and A. F. Dixson, Growth and ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol.115, issue.4, pp.349-360, 2001.

E. Sherratt, M. Del-rosario-castañeda, R. J. Garwood, D. L. Mahler, T. J. Sanger et al., Amber fossils demonstrate deep-time stability of Caribbean lizard communities, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.112, issue.32, pp.9961-9966, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02145306

R. Shine, P. Harlow, M. P. Lemaster, I. T. Moore, and R. T. Mason, The transvestite serpent: why do male garter snakes court (some) other males?, Animal Behaviour, vol.59, issue.2, pp.349-359, 2000.

R. Shine and E. L. Charnov, Patterns of Survival, Growth, and Maturation in Snakes and Lizards, The American Naturalist, vol.139, issue.6, pp.1257-1269, 1992.


R. Shine, T. Langkilde, and R. T. Mason, Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings, The American Naturalist, vol.162, issue.5, pp.653-667, 2003.


K. T. Shoemaker, A. R. Breisch, J. W. Jaycox, and J. P. Gibbs, Reexamining the minimum viable population concept for long-lived species, Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, vol.27, issue.3, pp.542-551, 2013.


A. Sibeaux, C. L. Michel, X. Bonnet, S. Caron, K. Fournière et al., Sex-specific ecophysiological responses to environmental fluctuations of free-ranging Hermann's tortoises: implication for conservation, Conservation Physiology, vol.4, issue.1, p.54, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01397059


B. B. Smuts and R. W. Smuts, Male Aggression and Sexual Coercion of Females in Nonhuman Primates and Other Mammals: Evidence and Theoretical Implications, Advances in the Study of Behavior, vol.22, pp.1-63, 1993.


D. Sol and J. Maspons, Integrating behavior into life-history theory: a comment on Wong and Candolin, Behavioral Ecology, vol.26, issue.3, pp.677-678, 2015.


V. Sommer and . Vasey, Homosexual behaviour in animals: an evolutionary perspective. Cambridge, 2006.

S. C. Stearns, The Effects of Size and Phylogeny on Patterns of Covariation in the Life History Traits of Lizards and Snakes, The American Naturalist, vol.123, issue.1, pp.56-72, 1984.

S. C. Stearns, The Evolution of Life Histories (1 edition), 1992.

S. C. Stearns and J. C. Koella, The Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity in LifeHistory Traits: Predictions of Reaction Norms for Age and Size at Maturity. Evolution, vol.40, 1986.

G. N. Stone, Female foraging responses to sexual harassment in the solitary bee Anthophora plumipes, Animal Behaviour, vol.50, issue.2, pp.405-412, 1995.


D. Stubbs, A. Hailey, E. Pulford, and W. Tyler, Population Ecology of European Tortoises: Review of Field Techniques, Amphibia Reptilia, vol.5, issue.1, pp.57-68, 1984.


T. Székely, F. J. Weissing, and J. Komdeur, Adult sex ratio variation: implications for breeding system evolution, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.27, issue.8, pp.1500-1512, 2014.

T. Székely, A. Liker, R. P. Freckleton, C. Fichtel, and P. M. Kappeler, Sexbiased survival predicts adult sex ratio variation in wild birds, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.281, 1788.

T. Madsen and R. Shine, Silver Spoons and Snake Body Sizes: Prey Availability Early in Life Influences Long-Term Growth Rates of Free-Ranging Pythons, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.69, issue.6, pp.952-958, 2000.

R. Thornhill and J. Alcock, Homosexual behaviour in animals: an evolutionary perspective, The evolution of insect mating systems, 1983.

, Translocated rhinos die in Tsavo East | Save the Rhino International, 2018.

A. Tsoularis and J. Wallace, Analysis of logistic growth models, Mathematical Biosciences, vol.179, issue.1, pp.21-55, 2002.

T. D. Tuberville, T. M. Norton, B. D. Todd, and J. S. Spratt, Long-term apparent survival of translocated gopher tortoises: A comparison of newly released and previously established animals, Biological Conservation, vol.141, issue.11, pp.2690-2697, 2008.


S. Tuljapurkar, U. K. Steiner, and S. H. Orzack, Dynamic heterogeneity in life histories, Ecology Letters, vol.12, issue.1, pp.93-106, 2009.

P. P. Van-dijk, J. B. Iverson, A. G. Rhodin, H. B. Schaffer, and R. Bour, , 2014.

, Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises (First, vol.5

D. P. Vanderlaan, Z. H. Garfield, M. J. Garfield, J. Leca, P. L. Vasey et al., The "female fertility-social stratification-hypergyny" hypothesis of male homosexual preference: factual, conceptual and methodological errors in Barthes et al, Evolution and Human Behavior, vol.35, issue.5, pp.445-447, 2014.

S. Veran and S. R. Beissinger, Demographic origins of skewed operational and adult sex ratios: perturbation analyses of two-sex models, Ecology Letters, vol.12, issue.2, pp.129-143, 2009.

A. Vilardell-bartino, X. Capalleras, J. Budó, R. Bosch, and P. Pons, Knowledge of habitat preferences applied to habitat management: the case of an endangered tortoise population, Amphibia-Reptilia, vol.36, issue.1, pp.13-25, 2015.


A. Vujovi?, V. Ikovi?, A. Golubovi?, S. Dordevi?, V. Pe?i? et al., Effects of fires and roadkills on the isolated population of Testudo hermanni, 2015.

. Gmelin, Reptilia: Testudinidae) in central Montenegro, Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, vol.67, issue.1, pp.75-84

R. A. Wallace, Social Behavior on Islands, Social Behavior, pp.167-204, 1978.

. Springer and M. A. Boston,

S. Wang, M. Cummings, and M. Kirkpatrick, Coevolution of male courtship and sexual conflict characters in mosquitofish, Behavioral Ecology, vol.26, issue.4, pp.1013-1020, 2015.


D. F. Westneat, P. W. Sherman, and M. L. Morton, The ecology and evolution of extra-pair copulations in birds, Current Ornithology, vol.7, pp.331-369, 1990.

H. M. Wilbur, The Evolutionary and Mathematical Demography of the Turtle Chrysemys picta, Ecology, vol.56, issue.1, pp.64-77, 1975.

H. M. Wilbur and P. J. Morin, Life-history evolution in turtles, 1988.

, Biology of the Reptilia. Ecology B. Defense and Life-history, vol.16

R. E. Willemsen and A. Hailey, Variation of adult body size of the tortoise Testudo hermanni in Greece: proximate and ultimate causes, Journal of Zoology, vol.248, issue.3, pp.379-396, 1999.

R. E. Willemsen and A. Hailey, Variation in adult survival rate of the tortoise Testudo hermanni in Greece: implications for evolution of body size, Journal of Zoology, vol.255, issue.1, pp.43-53, 2001.

R. E. Willemsen and A. Hailey, Body mass condition in Greek tortoises: Regional and interspecific variation, Herpetological Journal, vol.12, issue.3, pp.105-114, 2002.

D. S. Wilson, Estimates of Survival for Juvenile Gopher Tortoises, Gopherus polyphemus, Journal of Herpetology, vol.25, issue.3, p.376, 1991.

J. O. Wolff, W. D. Edge, and G. M. Wang, Effects of adult sex ratios on recruitment of juvenile gray-tailed voles, Microtus canicaudus, Journal of Mammalogy, vol.83, issue.4, pp.947-956, 2002.

B. B. Wong and U. Candolin, Behavioral responses to changing environments, Behavioral Ecology, vol.26, issue.3, pp.665-673, 2015.


A. Yamane, Frustrated felines: male-male mounting in feral cats, Homosexual behaviour in animals: an evo-lutionary perspective, pp.172-189, 2006.

S. Zenboudji, M. Cheylan, V. Arnal, A. Bertolero, R. Leblois et al., Conservation of the endangered Mediterranean tortoise Testudo hermanni hermanni: The contribution of population genetics and historical demography, Biological Conservation, vol.195, pp.279-291, 2016.


A. J. Zera and L. G. Harshman, The Physiology of Life History Trade-Offs in Animals, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol.32, issue.1, pp.95-126, 2001.


M. Zitzmann and E. Nieschlag, Testosterone levels in healthy men and the relation to behavioural and physical characteristics: facts and constructs, European Journal of Endocrinology, vol.144, issue.3, pp.183-197, 2001.


M. T. ?ivkov, G. N. Raikova-petrova, and T. A. Trichkova, Population biology and ontogenetic allometry of Testudo hermanni boettgeri MOJSISOVICS, 1889, in a marginal population in Bulgaria (Testudines: Testudinidae), Herpetozoa, issue.1/2, pp.11-26, 2009.

G. R. Zug, G. H. Balazs, and J. A. Wetherall, Growth in Juvenile Loggerhead Seaturtles (Caretta caretta) in the North Pacific Pelagic Habitat, Copeia, issue.2, pp.484-487, 1995.

G. R. Zug and J. F. Parham, Age and growth in Leatherback Turtles, Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines: Dermochelydae): A Skeletochronological Analysis, 1996.

, Chelonian Conservation and Biology, vol.2, issue.2, pp.244-249

X. Bonnet, A. Golubovi?, D. Arsovski, S. Djordjevi?, J. Ballouard et al., A prison effect in a wild population: a scarcity of females induces homosexual behaviors in males, THESIS REFERENCES: 1, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01303594

, Behavioral Ecology, vol.27, p.1206

A. Golubovic, M. An?elkovic, D. Arsovski, X. Bonnet, and L. Tomovic, Locomotor performances reflect habitat constraints in an armoured species, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01548785

, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol.71, p.93

D. Arsovski, L. Tomovi?, A. Golubovi?, S. Nikoli?, B. Sterijovski et al., When carapace governs size: variation among age classes and individuals in a free-ranging ectotherm with delayed maturity, Oecologia, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01720551

D. Arsovski, A. Olivier, X. Bonnet, S. Drilholle, L. Tomovi? et al., Covariates streamline age-specific early life survival estimates of two chelonian species, Journal of Zoology, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01849359

A. Golubovic, D. Arsovski, L. Tomovic, and X. Bonnet, Is sexual brutality maladaptive under high population density?, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.124, p.394, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01876445

S. Nikoli?, A. Golubovi?, X. Bonnet, D. Arsovski, J. Ballouard et al., Why and apparently prosperous subspecies needs strict protection? The case of Testudo hermanni boettgeri from the central Balkans?, Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 2018.

D. Arsovski, L. Tomovi?, A. Golubovi?, A. Besnard, I. Traj?eska et al., Sexually abusive tortoises digging their own grave: sex-ratio bias generates insufferable sexual conflict, Journal of Animal Ecology, 2018.

A. Relevant and . Co)authored-references,

R. Ajtic, L. Tomovic, B. Sterijovski, J. Crnobrnja-isailovic, S. Djordjevic et al., Unexpected life history traits in a very dense population of dice snakes, Zoologischer Anzeiger -A Journal of Comparative Zoology, vol.252, p.350, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00746978

A. Golubovic, D. Arsovski, R. Ajtic, L. Tomovic, and X. Bonnet, Moving in the real world: Tortoises take the plunge to cross steep steps, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00746973

A. Golubovic, M. Andjelkovic, D. Arsovski, A. Vujovic, V. Ikovic et al., Skills or strength-how tortoises cope with dense vegetation? Acta Ethologica, 2014.

D. Arsovski, R. Ajtic, A. Golubovic, I. Trajcéska, S. Djordjevi? et al., Two fangs good, a hundred legs better: juvenile viper devoured by an adult centipede it had ingested, Ecologica Montenegrina, vol.1, p.6, 2014.

, 1A. APPENDIX Birth year, 1999.

, Sigma Laboratory) with other steroids was low (B/B0: 5?-dihydrotestosterone: 17.8%; 5?-androstene-3?, 17?-diol: 1.4%; 5?-androstene-3?, Cross-reactivity of the specific antibody

, The assay's sensitivity was 7.8 pg by tube, that is, 156 pg/mL. Intra-assay and interassay variations were 6% and 12%

, Finally, here I present screenshots of four information boards produced as part of a Rufford Nature Conservation Grant (20915-1)

A. Bertolero, M. Cheylan, A. Hailey, B. Livoreil, and R. Willemsen, , 2011.

T. Hermanni, Gmelin 1789) -Hermann's Tortoise. Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises

A. Bertolero, G. Llorente, and M. Carretero, An assessment of the reliability of growth rings counts for age determination in the Hermann's Tortoise Testudo hermanni, Amphibia-Reptilia, vol.26, issue.1, pp.17-23, 2005.


K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach, 2002.

A. Canty and B. Ripley, boot: Bootstrap R (S-Plus) functions, 2012.

H. Caswell, Matrix population models. Construction, analysis and interpretation, p.722, 2001.

R. Choquet, J. Lebreton, O. Gimenez, A. Reboulet, and R. Pradel, , 2009.

U. , Utilities for performing goodness of fit tests and manipulating Capture-Recapture data, Ecography, vol.32, issue.6, pp.1071-1074


R. Choquet, L. Rouan, and R. Pradel, Program E-Surge: A Software Application for Fitting Multievent Models, Modeling Demographic Processes In Marked Populations, pp.845-865, 2009.


A. J. Fabens, Properties and fitting of the Von Bertalanffy growth curve, Growth, vol.29, issue.3, pp.265-289, 1965.

A. Golubovi?, D. Arsovski, R. Ajti?, L. Tomovi?, and X. Bonnet, Moving in the real world: Tortoises take the plunge to cross steep steps, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.108, issue.4, pp.719-726, 2013.


W. R. Gould and J. D. Nichols, Estimation of temporal variability of survival in animal populations, Ecology, vol.79, issue.7, pp.2531-2538, 1998.


A. Hailey and I. M. Coulson, The growth pattern of the African tortoise Geochelone pardalis and other chelonians, Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol.77, issue.2, pp.181-193, 1999.

S. Hamel, J. Gaillard, N. G. Yoccoz, S. Albon, S. D. Côté et al., Cohort variation in individual body mass dissipates with age in large herbivores, Ecological Monographs, vol.86, issue.4, pp.517-543, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02012375


R. B. King, K. M. Stanford, P. C. Jones, and K. Bekker, Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size, PLOS ONE, vol.11, issue.1, 2016.

M. Mazerolle, AICcmodavg: Model selection and multimodel inference based on (Q)AIC(c), 2011.

C. L. Michel and X. Bonnet, Effect of a brief stress on progesterone plasma levels in pregnant and non-pregnant guinea pigs, Animal Biology, vol.64, issue.1, pp.19-29, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00977502

J. Pinheiro, D. Bates, S. Debroy, . &amp;-r-core, and . Team, Nlme: Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models, 2017.

S. Pledger, K. H. Pollock, and J. L. Norris, Open Capture-Recapture Models with Heterogeneity: I. Cormack-Jolly-Seber Model, vol.59, pp.786-794, 2003.

R. Pradel, Multievent: An extension of multistate capture-recapture models to uncertain states, Biometrics, issue.2, p.61, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02126357


. R-core-team, R: A language and environment for statistical Computing, 2014.

M. Schaub and R. Pradel, Assessing the relative importance of different sources of mortality from recoveries of marked animals, Ecology, vol.85, issue.4, pp.930-938, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02126372

C. Stubben and B. Milligan, Estimating and analyzing demographic models, Journal Of Statistical Software, vol.22, issue.11, pp.1-23, 2007.


W. Venables and B. Ripley, Modern Applied Statistics With S. Technometrics, vol.45, 2003.