Etude du fonctionnement d'associations entre le bananier et une couverture vivante ; évaluation des potentialités et stratégies d'utilisation de plantes de service pour contrôler les adventices

Abstract : The objective of this PhD thesis was to provide an approach to identify suitable cover crops (Pds) for weed control use in banana plantations. Firstly, we quantified the reciprocal effects between the banana crop and a grass cover controlled by mowing, for Brachiaria decumbens or Cynodon dactylon. These cover crops have had similar depressive effects on the nitrogen nutrition and on the productivity of the first cycle, but not afterward during the second cycle. Second step, we carried out a field characterization of eight legume cover crops, on isolated plants, under a range of light intensity. In non-limited light growth conditions, the biomass growth corresponded to an exponential dynamic, mathematically defined for each species by the biomass 14 days after sowing, and the relative growth rate (RGR). When affected by the shade, the RGR was reduced and the ratio between Leaf area and aerial plant biomass increased. We defined four adaptive strategies of the cover crops to the shade, what constitute criteria guidelines for cover crop use in banana cropping systems. For three of these species, on the basis of the response of the radiation use efficiency, we are proposing a plant growth model without any limiting factor other than light resource. In stands with the presence of weeds, neither of this cover crops was able to control the tall gramineous, but Stylosanthes guianensis and Centrosema pascuorum reduced the biomass of other weeds by 60%. Finally, in banana plantations, the two evaluated species provided a control of the weeds but reduced the productivity of the first cycle. Our results are comforting for the use of cover crops in banana plantation as a mean for weed control.
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Raphaël Achard. Etude du fonctionnement d'associations entre le bananier et une couverture vivante ; évaluation des potentialités et stratégies d'utilisation de plantes de service pour contrôler les adventices. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLA036⟩. ⟨tel-02197674⟩

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