Produits biocides désinfectants dans les produits laitiers : méthodes quantitatives d'analyse des résidus et étude de l'impact des procédés de transformation du lait sur l'apparition de produits néoformés selon des approches d'analyse ciblée et non ciblée par spectrométrie de masse

Abstract : The thesis work focuses on the presence of disinfectants biocides in dairy products and on the impact of milk processing on the possible appearance of process-induced food contaminants related to the exposition of milk with biocides. Disinfectants biocides are chemicals daily used in the dairy industry in cleaning-disinfection (CD) processes of food contact surfaces. Quaternary ammoniums as benzalkonium chloride (BACs) and dialkyldimethylammonium chloride (DDACs), and the Aminopropyldodecylpropane diamine are the most widely used disinfectants in dairy industry. These biocides can lead residues on the surfaces of food contact materials therefore present a health risk for the consumer. With aim of measuring consumers exposure, two reliable analytical methods have been developed for the analysis of these substances in dairy products involving liquid chromatography hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry. Raw cow's milk, whole milk powder, hard pressed and processed cheeses were selected as representing the diversity of dairy products. The evaluation of the performances of each of the methods was carried out by the global approach based on the accuracy profile. For most of compounds and matrices studied, analytical methods were validated within the range of 5 to 150 μg/kg. To answer to the questioning of the impact of milk processes on biocides disinfectants residues, the evolution of compounds contents and their fate in the various matrices resulting from the milk were studied. For this, two proof-of-concept studies implementing global chemical fingerprint comparisons, acquired by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, of processed cheese and hard pressed cheese (contaminated vs control) samples were carried out. These studies allowed to detect 4 discriminant ions linked to the presence of biocides in processed cheese. Their identification remains to be done. Whole this work is related for food safety purposes. The first part was linked to elaborate targeted analytical methods for biocides residues in milk and milk products thus allowing the measurement of biocides residues on food. These measurements are necessary for the risk analysis linked to these residues. The second part is in relation with the question of the behavior of biocides residues within milk processing presenting the strategy, the results we could obtain and the perspective for future works.
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Kahina Slimani. Produits biocides désinfectants dans les produits laitiers : méthodes quantitatives d'analyse des résidus et étude de l'impact des procédés de transformation du lait sur l'apparition de produits néoformés selon des approches d'analyse ciblée et non ciblée par spectrométrie de masse. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1B011⟩. ⟨tel-02196168⟩

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