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;. Pre-christian-pre-christian, . Ptolemy, and V. Geography, 14: 19 : mentioned Rasapha as one of the towns of Palmyrena. -Peutinger Table, segm.10, Risapa was situated on the Roman road from Damascus to the Euphrates -The anonymus Ravenna geographer, Cosmographia, vol.II, issue.5, p.15

. Ch-ristian-era-christian and . Era, Ru??fa became famous due to the grave of St. Sergius (according to the records in Bedjan, Acta martyrum, vol.3, pp.283-322

, At the same time high walls and various buildings had been put up. Therefore the present walls must be ascribed to that of the metropolitan Alexander, the second decade of the fifth century, p.101

, Musil wrote that it's also possible that this bishop Sergius was identical with the bishop Sergius who was sent to al-Hira in 524 and that the Martyry was therefore built either shortly before or soon after that date. From this time also may date the decoration of the northern gate. According to the quoted reports it is probably, -several columns from the martyry bear inscriptions which make it evident, that they were erected in the time of a bishop Sergius and of an assistant or rural bishop Maronius

P. Procopius-(de-bello, II) mentions Sergiopolis in connection with military campaigns of Chosroes

, Early Islamic Period Early Islamic Period: During the reign of Umayyads al-Ru??fa became known all over the Moslem word as the residence of the caliph Hish?m

, Al-?abar? states that reason why Hish?m settled there was that caliphs and their sons liked to live in the country, thus escaping of contagious diseases. Hish?m moved to al-Ru??fa in the desert, where he built two manors. (at-Tabari , Ta'rih, He also died in al-Ru??fa on February, vol.6, pp.1737-1775

, After the abbasid conquest in 750, al-Ru??fa suffered from venegance of the new regime's troops who destroyed Hish?m's tomb in the city

, the sons of Zikrwaih, the head chief of the Carmathians with some other tribes pillaged a number of settlements (at-Tabari , Ta'rih, Ser. 2,p.2217-19) and also burn the mosque at al-Ru??fa

, Musil assumed that al-Ru??fa probably suffered from the same earthquake mentioned by, vol.2

, Musil supposed al-Ru??fa was also demolished that year, after which date the monastery basilica alone was rebuilt. This work was done in 1O93, since there is written on the stone set into the western wall of the church: "renovated in the time of Symeon, the metropolitan of Sergiopolis, in the month of June, 6601 after the Creation of the World, Musil belived, that after the martyry was destroyed by the erthquake St. Sergius was moved to basilica, vol.10

R. Guyer, 15 argues that these columns were taken from the corridors of the old atrium of the basilica, but Musil's wrote that an inscription calling on St. Sergius to grant peace to all testifies that they were taken from his martyry, 1920.

W. Yakut-(mu'gam, , vol.2, p.784

A. Musil, Palmyrena. New Yorku. str, pp.64-67, 1928.

G. Brands, Die Bauornamentik von Resafa -Sergiupolis: Studien zur spätantiken Architektur und Bauausstattung in Syrien und Nordmesopotamien, Resafa VI. Weitere Bände sind in Vorbereitung, 2002.

W. Karnapp, Die Stadtmauer von Resafa in Syrien, DAA 11. Die monographische Reihe Resafa wird von der Zentraldirektion des DAI in Berlin herausgegeben, 1976.

M. Konrad, Der spätrömische Limes in Syrien: Archäologische Untersuchungen an den Grenzkastellen von Sura, 2001.

M. Mackensen, K. Otto, and . Dorn, Ausgrabungen und spätantike Kleinfunde eines Surveys im Umland von Resafa-Sergiupolis, Resafa I Mendl,M.1925: Resáfa -p?ísp?vek k m?stskému a sakrálnímu stavebnictví k?es?anského Orientu, vol.2, pp.199-134, 1957.

F. Sarre and E. Herzfeld, , 1911.

H. Spanner and S. Guyer, Rusafa. Die Wallfahrtsstadt des Heiligen Sergios, 1926.

D. Sack, Die Große Moschee von Resafa -Rusafat Hisham, Die Basilika des Heiligen Kreuzes in Resafa-Sergiupolis, 1986.

T. Ulbert, Der kreuzfahrerzeitliche Silberschatz aus Resafa-Sergiupolis, 1990.

, Ro man -un identifiedRoman -uniden tifiedArcheologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is

, Abbasid: 1) mad?na 2) castle 3) the Bath 4) hydraulic system 5) The southern structures (group of the buildings) with the southern castle 6) the northern structures (group of the buildings) Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration, Category: Category: Early Islamic -AbbasidEarly Islamic -AbbasidArcheologist: Geneq uand Denis Genequand Denis Category: Category: Early Islamic -UmayyadEarly Islamic -UmayyadArcheologist: Geneq uand Denis Genequand Denis Period: Umayyad

, on 26th of October 1908 at 11:52 am b) departure on 26th of October 1908 at 3: 50 pm Mu sil's actio n time

, Component: Archeologist: Geneq uand Denis Genequand Denis Islamic -unidentified -agricultural features Islamic -unidentified -agricultural features Component: Component: Archeologist: Geneq uand Denis Genequand Denis -houses -houses Component: Component: Archeologist: Geneq uand Denis Genequand Denis Early Islamic -AbbasidEarly Islamic -AbbasidComponent: Component: Archeologist: Geneq uand Denis Genequand Denis Early Islamic -Umayyad -castle Early Islamic -Umayyad -castle Component: Component: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Ro man -un identified -en clo sure -large Ro man -un identified -en clo sure -large Component, Component: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is

A. Musil, Kusejr Amra und andere Schlösser östlich von Moab, Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-historischen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, vol.7, pp.1-51, 1902.

A. Musil, Kusejr Amra. V?stník ?eské akademie císa?e Franti?ka Josefa pro v?dy, slovesnost a um?ní 11, pp.325-349, 1902.

A. Musil, , 1907.

A. Musil, Arabia Petraea I, 1907.

K. A. Creswell and J. W. -allan, A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture, vol.197, pp.201-215, 1973.

R. G. Khouri, . Amman, and M. Najjar, Notes -Discussions Notes -Discussions Decorated facade of al-Mushatta was transported to Berlin in 1903 as a gift of Ottoman sultan to Kaiser Wilhem II, Discover Islamicart Art. Place: Museum With No Frontiers, pp.11-12, 1992.

, Musil describes, that Qasr al-Mushatta is not the same as al-??b?, but very similar to it. It differs from it by its size, by overall disposition and especially by richness of decoration. The peripheral wall of the castle at-Tuba is rectangular, while at the castle of al-Mshatta it is a square with a side of 147 m

, This corresponds to the later survey, which states, that Qasr al-Mushatta is a square structure (144 m x 144 m) with four circular corner towers and five semi-circular interval towers on three of its four sides

, Musil states, that in al-Mushatta not only repeats individual structural elements of residential building activities

, Musil states, that the plan of al-Mushatta published in Arabia Petraea (Musil 1907b, 198, fig. 83) comes from A. Mielich. The plan in outlines approximately corresponds with later surveys, but naturally does not contains structures detectable only with use of modern methods

, The exact time is not mentioned, but it's evident that they had enough time to make considerably precise sketches and photos of the site. ????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Geolocation: Geolocation: Ten minutes of camel ride from the limestone quarries called al-Mushatta, he visited the site again with Mielich, 1901.

, Category: Category: Early Islamic -Umayyad -castle Early Islamic -Umayyad -castle Archeologist: Geneq uand Denis Genequand Denis -Gennequand, vol.8, 2006.

, Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is, 1902.

, Musil 1902a) The information differs in different Musil's publications: a) according to his report (Musil 1902a) and AP I. (Musil 1907b) he visited this site on 5th June 1898 b) according to his report, about 10,12 on 5th June in 1898 b) departure at 13,15 on 5th June in 1898, 1898.

, Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is -unknown Duration

, 2a) arrival at ? not mentioned b) departure on 11th.June in 1901 Musil visited the site together with A. Mielich in order to make the most precise description and sketches of some castles

, Mu sil's actio n time

, Mu sil's actio n time

A. Musil, Kusejr Amra und andere Schlösser östlich von Moab, Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-historischen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, vol.7, pp.1-51, 1902.

A. Musil, Kusejr Amra. V?stník ?eské akademie císa?e Franti?ka Josefa pro v?dy, slovesnost a um?ní 11, pp.325-349, 1902.

A. Musil, , 1907.

A. Musil, Arabia Petraea I. Moab, vol.180, 1907.

D. Genequand, Project " Implantations umayyades de Syrie et de Jordanie"-Rapport sur une campagne de prospection et reconnaissance, 146, 2001.

, The original intention was to built it symmetrical, but as aerial prospection shows, only part was completed. Also barrel vaulted chambers, with courses of baked brick sourmounted by mud bricks, were constructed just from one half. Most of the site (including all of the southern part) rests only as the foundation levels, vol.227

, MuMussiill visited this site twice. In 1898 and in 1901 he worked there together with A. Mielich. The purpose of their visit was to get data for creation of the most accurate plan

, Ground plan and architectural reconstruction of this "palace" were made by architect Max Kropf (Musil 1907b, vol.179, p.61

, Musil wrote, that he didn't find any mention about this site in historical sources, vol.23, 1902.

, According to the prospection of Denis Genequand, the function of the structures in the north and the south of the east part of the castle, which have better preserved analogy in Mushatta, vol.146, 2001.

, Geolocation: Geolocation: Modern state: Jordan Jordan GPS: 31, vol.3056, p.6354

, Category: Category: Early Islamic -Umayyad -castle Early Islamic -Umayyad -castle

, Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration, vol.3, pp.1901-1907

, b) the time of the departure is not precise, but at 16, 43 Musil went to make a prospection of wells (saqq?ya) nearby (to the north from the castle); they didn't stay there for a night. Musil visited the site accompanied by A. Mielich. The aim of their visit was to get data for creation of the most accurate plan, vol.10, 1901.

, Musil References Musil, A. 1907a: ?u?ejr Amra

A. Musil, Arabia Petraea I. Moab. Wien: Alfred Holder. Others selected references Others selected references Brünnow, 1905.

K. A. Creswell and J. W. -allan, Project "Implantations umayyades de Syrie et de Jordanie, pp.131-135, 1989.

, Notes -Discussions Notes -Discussions Prospection of Dennis Genequand in 2001 found out, that only 9 vaults from 10 described by Musil and Brünnow-Domaszewski remained preserved

, Also tower with square ground plan located by Musil against the southern wall did not survive, as well as number of cisterns around the castle. An agricultural structure placed by Musil to the east of castle and commented by Sauvaget (Sauvaget 1967,37) were not found, too. The construction of a modern village and its infrastructure have destroyed and buried ancient monuments in the castle´s environs

, Gennequand states, that archaeological structures visible now only from aerial photographs are closer to the Musil´s plan than of Sauvaget's one. Musil´s plan remains very valuable, because the most part of the site were completely destroyed by a modern construction, vol.137, 2002.

, Geolocation: Musil 1902b, 330; Musil 1907b, 190 Geolocation: Musil 1902b, 330; Musil 1907b, p.190

, The excavation is situated on the top of 910 m high mountain from the range of hills of the same name, vol.8081, p.1078

, Category: Category: Early Islamic -Umayyad -castle Early Islamic -Umayyad -castle Archeologist: Geneq uand Denis Genequand Denis -Gennequand, p.2012, 2002.

, Hegira Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration

, 12) 2) a) arrival at: afternoon on 4th June in 1898 b) departure at: afternoon on 4th June in 1898 (Musil 1902b, 12; Musil 1907, 190) from above mentioned we can see that time, at: afternoon on 3rd June in 1898 (with H?yel) b) departure at: afternoon on 3rd June in 1898, 1902.

, Mu sil's actio n time

, Mu sil's actio n time total: 00:00:00 Component: Component: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is -Musil 1902b, I, vol.190

, Early Islamic -Umayyad -tower Early Islamic -Umayyad -tower

, According to historical sources there was a castle (qa?r) of Nu 'm?n b. Bash?r. The site was also mentioned among several fortified sites. al-?abar? also mentioned there were the village (qarya) and camp of tents (fus???)

, sources: Y?q?t, Al-Mas '?d?

A. Musil, , 1928.

T. Wiegand, 1932: Palmyra. Ergebnisse der Expeditionen von 1902 und 1917

D. Genequand, Project " Implantations umayyades de Syrie et de Jordanie, 2002.

, Wiegand placed it on the road from Palmyra to Bosra. Mu sil Musil photodocumentation of Corinthian capital of Palmyra type signifies an important source for datation, Musil identified it with classical Goaria

, Musil's plan was measured by pacing, he spent there between two to three hours. Musil's "north" wall corsponds to Wiegand's "intermediate

D. , Genequand disagrees with interpretation of A. Musil that qa?r was built as integral part of fus??? mentioned in al-?abar?, which was also fortified

, Musil's plan was focused only on fort. He notes the large building at the centre. ????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Geolocation: -the site is located at the southwestern end of Tadmur lowland, on the northeastern spur of the ridge of Abtar, it's in the proximity of the great Roman road from Damascus to the Euphrates Geolocation: Geolocation: 21 km south of Palmyra Category: Category, Despite of the large scale of this site and various type of the monuments

. Roman, Umayyad part of structure of Umayyad castles Category: Category: --Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is

U. Roman and . Roman-fort, Umayyad fortified town, qa?r Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration

, Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration

, Mu sil's actio n time total, vol.24, p.0

, Component: Component: Ro man -un identified -fo rt Ro man -un identified -fo rt Archeologist, Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is -Musil, p.131, 1928.

, at 9:17 am departure on: 19.3.1912 at 6: 45 am Musil examined the buildings (extensive, but in a hopelessly ruinous condition) and sketched the ground plan of the largest standing building Mu sil's actio n time total, vol.21, p.0

, Mu sil's actio n time total: 21:28:00 Component: Component: Archeologist: Geneq uand Denis Genequand Denis Early Islamic -Umayyad -castle Early Islamic -Umayyad -castle Component: Component: Archeologist: Geneq

R. Fort, Ummayad castle A A al-Ba??r? (Musil Alois -Musil 1928, 130/ fig. 30) al-Ba??r?/Avira, Aviraca (Genequand Denis -Genequand, vol.53, 2003.

, Musil's visit 1908 (Palmyrena)

, Musil's visit 1908 (Palmyrena) -ruins It was a rectangular construction, with sides 53 m and 48 m, the longer side runs in east-southern direction

. Al-bazurijje, It was built in the centre of a large garden irrigated from two wells. Solid buildings once stood near the northern well, but of these little remain. The southern well is in the court of a small square fort with a projecting gate and a huge tower, pp.88-89, 1928.

, Musil's visit 1912 (Palmyrena)

, Musil's visit 1912 (Palmyrena)

, East of the building a house stands in the form of a square of 17 m to a side, with an entrance at the south.On the west side of the ruins is another building in fair condition. It is a rectangle 63 m long from east to west by 29 m wide. The east and west sides are strenghtened by two rounded towers. The arched gate opens from the east into a yard, where there is a natural well, These ruins consist of several buildings, all of them in a state of great dilapidation. Best-preserved are the foundations of a huge structure at the eastern end of the ruins, which forms a rectangle 53 m long from east to west by 48 m wide, pp.137-138, 1928.

A. Musil, , pp.137-139, 1928.

T. Bazou, Recherches sur les routes des frontières orientales de l'Empire romain, A finibus Syriae, 1989.

D. Genequand, Implantations umayyades de Syrie et de Jordanie"-Rapport sur une campagne de prospection et reconnaissance. Amman Notes -Discussions Notes -Discussions In 1908 Musil Musil spent there not determined time in detail, 2002.

, After they were told, that Musil´s group came to make a survey of the landscape, they started to be afraid, that this was another government project, on which base the government will confiscate another land. Musil succeded at the end to soothe them, however, he preferred not to continue in measuring, Musil was preparing to make the plan of the site and its environs, but local Bedouins discouraged him, pp.88-89, 1928.

, The visit of these places in 1912, when they spent here about two hours, was considerably more calm. The most of buildings was almost completely disintegrated, the most preserved building was situated in the eastern part

, Musil´s Palmyrena besides ground plans of some buildings also two photographs from this site were printed, p.137, 1928.

, Musil published incompleted ground plan of two complexes in Bazuriyya, but he plotted 2 supporting towers, which at the present time are not perceptible (Musil, pp.137-140, 1928.

, Geolocation: Geolocation: 20 km south of Palmyra; in the east from al-Bakhr? and Sukkariyya Modern state: Syria Syria Geolocation: Musil, p.88, 1928.

, Geolocation: Musil 1928, 88 al-Bahra Category: Category: By zan tin e -u nid entifiedBy zan tin e -u nid entifiedArcheologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is "Roman" or Byzantine villa Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration

, Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration, vol.8, pp.1908-1918

, no exact time of arrival mentioned, but it was late in the afternoon, 1908.

, Mu sil's actio n time total, vol.15, p.0

, Mu sil's actio n time total, vol.15, p.0

, At the present time the site is situated approximately 2 km from the main road Palmyra -Damascus, is poorly accessible and from the tourist viewpoint absolutely unsuitable because of furious packs of dogs, which are abundant in the neigbourhood. Only a part of foundations masonry remained and one gate is partly visible

, Geolocation: Geolocation: On the Strata Diocletiana, half way (cca 50 km) between al-Ba??r? to the north-east and Kh?n al-Sham?t to the south-west; it crossed the route leading north the Jabal Rawaq and south towards Jabal Says Modern state: Syria Syria Category: Category: Ro man -un identified -fo rt Ro man -un identified -fo rt Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is 90,2m square; cca O,76 ha, Chán Al-Mankúra is situated in the vicinity of the road between Palmyra and Damascus

, Mu sil's actio n time total, vol.58, p.0

, Mu sil's actio n time total, vol.58, p.0

, Kh?n al-Manq?ra and environs (Musil Alois -Musil, vol.32, 1928.

, Kh?n al-Manq?ra and environs

A. Musil, , 1928.

A. Poidebard, , 1934.

. Paris,

S. Gregory, Roman Military Architecture on the Eastern Frontier. From AD 200-600. 3 vol, 1995.

, After the draft in his diary and the notes he create 2 plans of the site: one of the site with it's environs and another one of the ruins

, Geolocation: Geolocation

, Geolocation: Geolocation: On Strata Diocletiana cca 27 km south-west of al-Ba??r? Modern state: Syria Syria Category: Category: Ro man -un identified -fo rt Ro man -un identified -fo rt Archeologist: Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration, Kh?n 'Anaybe lies on the southern foot of the an-Nusrani range

, Mu sil's actio n time

, Mu sil's actio n time

A. Poidebard, Le Limes de Trajan a la Conquète arabe. Recherches aériennes 1925-1932, 1934.

S. Gregory, Roman Military Architecture on the Eastern Frontier. From AD 200-600. 3 vol, 1995.

, Musil wrote that according to Blejhan´s explanations the name was given to the ruins, because of old the women from "al-B?ara" (Al-Bakhr?) used to come there avery day to milk the goats and to graze sheep. Consequently it was called "the Castle of the Milking Women

, According to historical sources Musil believed that the Roman camp was not used in the Byzantine period

, Musil during his short stay with lieutenant Thomasberger measured buildings and made the ground plan, which Musil later published in his Palmyrena. Musil had in plan to look for old inscriptions, but during the work on a sketch of the environs they were attacked by a group of Bedouins and a long negotiation made impossible to perform this plan, pp.92-93, 1928.

G. Bell, For ex. additions to the wall on the inside are in fact outside, as it's possible to see on

, Poidebard's plan shows external additions to the walls, but on the photo it's seems to show only addition between the towers

, According to Khaled al-Ass'ad (a former director of museum in Palmyra) in 3rd and 6th centuries the Kh?n al-?all?b?t was restored and was fortified by second contiguous outer wall 3,5 m thick, 1978.

, Unfortunately as it's possible to see now, it's one of the examples of not very "sensitive" restoration. Today is not this kind of "completition" of the ruins in favour, Modern state: Syria Syria Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration

, Mu sil's actio n time total, vol.27, p.0

, Mu sil's actio n time total, vol.27, p.0

, Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration, vol.30, p.0

, Mu sil's actio n time

, Mu sil's action time

, Mu sil's actio n time

, Mu sil's actio n time

, Kh?n al-Shind?h (Musil Alois -Private archive of Musil's Family)

. ??????????????-?????????????-?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????-geolocation, Geolocation: 30 km west-south of Tadmur/ Palmyra, on the route to Damascus, parallel to Strata Diocletiana, north of Jabal Rawaq Category: Category: Ro man -un identified -fo rt Ro man -un identified -fo rt Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration

, Mu sil's actio n time

, Mu sil's actio n time total: 00:30:00 al-Kulaybiyya (Musil Alois -Musil 1928, 135/ fig. 32) al-Kulaybiyya_plan of the Bath ('Umar al-As 'ad -after 'Umar al-As, 2010.

A. Musil, , 1928.

A. Poidebard, Le Limes de Trajan a la Conqu?te arabe, 1934.

. Paris,

S. Gregory, Notes -Discussions Notes -Discussions Construction is made of hard limestone; it's similar construction of "moyen appareil" to Kh?n al-Hall?bat, but without mortar, Roman Military Architecture on the Eastern Frontier. From AD 200-600. 3 vol., Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1995.

, ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Geolocation: Geolocation: cca 30 km southeast of Kh?n al-Hall?bat, 47 km from Tadmur/ Palmyra via al-Bakhr?. Modern state, Gregory after Poidebard documentations stated that west and south side was already destroyed in 1932, pp.204-205, 1997.

, Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is Duration

, Mu sil's actio n time

, Mu sil's actio n time

M. Konrad, The Limes project. Mainz am Rein, 2005.

T. Ulbert, La residencia rural omeya de Hallul-Cholle( Syria), pp.191-192, 2001.

, It is identical to the main line of fortification as well as in layout of the inner built-up area, which was specified by the new research, Notes -Discussions Notes -Discussions The exploration of the Roman fortress roughly confirmed Musil´s plan

, Action

, am till (extact time not mentioned, but they stopped at the most for 45 minutes

, Mu sil's actio n time total: Musil's action time to tal: al-Khulla/Cholle (Musil Alois -1928

A. Musil, Palmyrena. New York. Musil. A. 1927: Arabia Deserta. New York. Others selected references, 1928.

D. Genequand, Project " Implantations umayyades de Syrie et de Jordanie"-Rapport sur une campagne de prospection et reconnaissance, SLSA -Jahresbericht, pp.131-161, 2001.

M. Lenoir, Dumayr, Faux camp romain, vraie résidence palatiale; in: Syria, pp.227-236, 1999.

, Notes -Discussions Notes -Discussions

, Musil states, that this was the largest fortified camp to the north-east from Damascus. During his visit in1908 he spent over one hour there and he measured it and drew its ground plan, vol.112, 1928.

, The modern plan of the side coresponds with Musil´s plan in main lines of fortifications, but it differs in inner layout. Two structures indicated in Musil´s plan, which Lenoir originally interpreted as commemorative columns, were during the research identified as cisterns of a pear-like shape

, Musil didn't noticed Umayyad structures

, Lenoir states, that the church in the vicinity of south-western corner, noticed by Musil, was built with the same technique and from the same material as the inner palace

, The type of fortification is more similar to the Umayyad buildings than to Roman camps, pp.24-25, 1999.

, The object was not very sensitively restored and was accessible for public (before the escalation of today's conflict)

, Geolocation: Geolocation: state: Syria Syria Category: Category: Ro man -un identified -camp Ro man -un identified -camp Archeologist

, ?id=monument;both sides of entrance hall are stables and staircase with very low steps leading to 3 apartments (Syrian bayt -"house", specifically referring to courtyard appartments in early Islamic period) around the court, which are mutually divided (Musil, 1907b, 293, fig. 131). Each flat had one main larger room and 5-6 smaller rooms into which the light entered partly through the light well above the doors and partly through narrow openings, loopholes, Musil worked there with Tûmân (Rudolf Thomasberger) from Military Cartographical Institute in Vienna

, What remained were 5 space formations -3 flats above the ground floor and 2 flats above stables. Above the entry hall was a special room and individual flats composed of 4-6 small rooms. Musil wrote, that especially excellent were three larger rooms. The lighting was the same as below. On the outside wall are two rows of loopholes. From upper floor led staircase to the roof. All spaces of both floors were covered by a barrel vault

, Outside walls are as the others from hewn quarry stones, which alternate with smaller stones. All preserved walls in the court were plastered by mortar, from exterior walls none

, Outside walls were reinforced by towers, which serve also as a decoration

, Musil described, that radius of arch above the entry gate was widened, as well as whole gate was. Musil belived, that above the original narrower entry gate existed a protruding balcony, from which defenders poured resin on attackers, pp.290-291, 1907.

, History History For the first time Musil saw this site in 1898. Then Alois Musil visited Qa?r al-Khar?na together with A, 1901.

, After Musil, the site was visited by Jaussen and Sauvinac (Jaussen -Savinac 1922), 1995.

A. Musil, Kusejr Amra. V?stník ?eské akademie císa?e Franti?ka Josefa pro v?dy, slovesnost a um?ní 11, pp.325-349, 1902.

A. Musil, Arabia Petraea I. Moab. Wien: Alfred Holder Musil,A. Others selected references, 1907.

S. C. Ulrice, Qasr Kharana in the Transjordan, 1987.

D. Kennedy and R. Bewley, Ancient Jordan from the Air, 2004.

, Category: Category: Early Islamic -UmayyadEarly Islamic -UmayyadArcheologist: Geneq uand Denis Genequand Denis, vol.8, 2006.

, 35m x35 m (Gennequand 2006, 8) Category: Category: Early Islamic -UmayyadEarly Islamic -UmayyadArcheologist: -Kennedy-Bewley, p.223, 2004.

, 223) Action: Action: Archeologist: Musil Alo is Musil Alo is, vol.25, issue.25, 2004.

, Departure: on10th of June at 1:40 (am). Musil documented the site together with Mielich (Musil 1907b, vol.16, p.25, 1901.

, Mu sil's actio n time total: Musil's action time to tal: Component: Component: Archeologist: --A A Geolocation: ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Qa?r al-Khar?na (Mausse M. -after Mause in: Musil 1907b, 292/fig.130) Qa?r al-Khar?na (Mausse M

, Musil 1907b, 295:fig. 132) Qa?r al-Khar?na (Mausse M. -after Mause in: Musil 1907b