Etude de l'habitat épipélagique du Golfe de Tadjourah (Djibouti) : structures de variabilité et processus qui les gouvernent

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is to study the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the pelagic habitat (0-200m), its spatio-temporal variability and the processes that govern them in the Gulf of Tadjourah (Djibouti).Singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) were applied to two data sets derived from AVHRR_MetopA radiometry and sea colour sensors (Modis and Meris). These statistical analysis shows that the variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a concentration (CHLa) are mainly explained by annual and semi-annual cycles. The annual cycle of SST consists of an alternation between warmer (April to October) and cooler (November to March) surface water. The semi-annual cycle shows a slight drop of SST between July and August, particularly in the west of the gulf. For the CHLa, the variability is fully dominated by the annual cycle indicating summer enrichment of seashore water (July-November) with a strong seaward gradient which is reversed from October to May. Multichannel spectrum analysis (M-SSA) and cross correlation function analysis applied to the oceanic (SST, CHL-a) and atmospheric parameters (wind speed, air temperature and humidity) showed that the annual cycle of SST is connected to heat flux at the air-sea interface, while the summer drop of SST and its associated CHL-a increase were attributed to upwelling. In the second part, in order to elucidate this oceanic influence on SST and CHL-a, the vertical thermohaline and biogeochemical structures of the upper layer (0-200 m) were studied using high-resolution hydrographic data collected in July-August 2013, September 2013 and February 2014. During summer, the superficial layer consisted of the mixed layer (ML) extending to a depth of about 20-30 m, followed by the thermocline located between 30 and 50 m depth. The ML was thicker in the west and the southeast where the thermal gradient and chlorophyll a concentrations were particularly high. During September, this stratification persisted but the ML became warmer and saltier and the thermocline moved slightly deeper. In February, the ML extended to about 120 m, and the thermocline was less pronounced. A comparison of the directly measured currents to the wind induced Ekman currents and to geostrophic current profiles revealed that the thermohaline and the biogeochemical features were related to the southeast and northeast monsoon winds (SWM & NEM). Between June and August, the SWM drives surface water from the Gulf of Tadjourah to the Gulf of Aden and thus induces the westward intrusion of high salinity thermocline water from the Gulf of Aden. This near surface flow mixes surface waters in the extreme west of the Gulf of Tadjourah. In contrast, the NEM which blow from September to May, bring cold water toward the Gulf of Tadjourah and thickens the ML through convective mixing. Our thesis shows that the monsoon winds and their seasonal reversal play a crucial role in the stratification of the water column, but that their effects are additionally influenced by basin topography. During summer the bowl-shape of the basin and its elongated slope in the west enhance the upwelling in this area where negative sea surface temperature anomalies and high chlorophyll a concentrations were observed.
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Moussa Omar Youssouf. Etude de l'habitat épipélagique du Golfe de Tadjourah (Djibouti) : structures de variabilité et processus qui les gouvernent. Océanographie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BRES0017⟩. ⟨tel-02191547⟩

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