Caractérisation fonctionnelle des voies de la déubiquitination de l'histone H2B chez Arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract : Plants utilize rapid mechanisms to adapt their physiology and development to changing environments. Their triggering depends greatly on gene expression reprogramming leading to important changes in the epigenome. In numerous organisms, different pathways remove monoubiquitination of histone H2B (H2Bub) to facilitate gene transcription by RNA polymerase II, with H2Bub removal on repeated genomic regions, such as telomeres, prohibiting establishment of a transcription permissive state. This thesis aims to better characterize the pathways that regulate the chromatin mark H2Bub in plants. A new ubiquitin protease from Arabidopsis thaliana was identified as a potential homolog of Ubp8, a protein associated with transcription elongation within a deubiquitination module of the SAGA complex in S. cerevisiae. Identification and functional characterization of the three components of the deubiquitination module in A. thaliana reveals its action on thousands of genes, suggesting a role in basal transcription mechanism. Secondly, it was shown that the quantity of two subunits from this module is regulated during photomorphogenesis by DET1, a central protein involved in light signaling. This developmental transition allows adaptation of metabolism and morphology of the plant in response to the first light exposure, notably during photosynthesis establishment. The post-translational regulation of the histone H2Bub deubiquitination module may allow its adjustment to changes in cell transcription needs during this transition. A genetic approach identified a partial functional redundancy between the deubiquitination module activity and UBP26, a second H2Bub deubiquitinase known to repress the genes PHERES1 and FLC by a Polycomb activity and certain transposable elements. These analyses revealed a positive influence from UBP26 on establishing a repressive transcriptional state on hundreds of genes and on some heterochromatinian contexts. Collectively, this work dissected specificities and functional redundancies of two H2Bub deubiquitination pathways driven by distinct protein complexes.
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Martin Rougée. Caractérisation fonctionnelle des voies de la déubiquitination de l'histone H2B chez Arabidopsis thaliana. Génétique des plantes. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS222⟩. ⟨tel-02191523⟩

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