Vers des modèles durables de transformation des systèmes d’élevage en Asie du Sud-Est : Application au cas du secteur laitier au Vietnam

Abstract : In Vietnam, dairy farms are faced with numerous challenges in terms ofsustainability in a context of a rapid transition of the economy and ecosystems. The mainquestion is whether future models for dairy production should be based on family farming orlarge-scale production. As a contribution to the discussions, this thesis has combined asynchronic analysis on the diversity and sustainability of a large sample of dairy farms and adiachronic analysis of farm trajectories. One hundred and sixty dairy farms were selected inthe peri-urban district of Ba Vi, in Hanoi, to represent the diversity of farms in the area.Information was collected during structured interviews with dairy farmers with regard to thediverse types of capital available on the farm, husbandry practices, milk marketing and theindicators to assess the three pillars of sustainability. A farm typology was conducted using amultiple factor analysis, based on capital endowment and practices, followed by an ascendinghierarchical classification. In the second stage, a trajectory analysis was carried out on 25dairy farms, chosen from a broad sample, and on the internal and external factors thatinfluence change. In the district, one industrial farm, in addition to five types of family dairyfarms were identified. The difference between farms was primarily linked to the number offarming and non-farming activities on-farm, the labour involved in dairy processing and theequipment. The performance indicators for the most intensive farms (specialized or withmixed crop and livestock production), suggest that they are more economically and sociallyviable than smaller less intensive farms. However, less intensive farms also have economicand environmental advantages (ease of adaptation and self-sufficiency in fodder,respectively). Therefore, they have potential in terms of the development of national dairyproduction. We identified four types of trajectory, characterized by the evolution in thefarming system over time, the changes in the scale of dairy production, the level of investmentin milk, the evolution in farmland and labour, and loans. It is important to maintain diversemodels (private mega farms, specialized family farms and mixed crop and livestock).Research on how to improve sustainability should be adapted to each farm type. Selectedpolicies measures could be implemented to maintain a diverse fabric of dairy farms.
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Duy Khanh Pham. Vers des modèles durables de transformation des systèmes d’élevage en Asie du Sud-Est : Application au cas du secteur laitier au Vietnam. Agriculture, économie et politique. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016IAVF0015⟩. ⟨tel-02191505⟩

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