Matériaux numériques tribologiques pour un système de freinage ferroviaire

Abstract : The increase of the rail speed imposes the improvement of the braking performances related to the friction materials used in brake pad and brakes shoes. However, wear remains a limiting point in terms of performance but also safety. It has the effect of damaging the materials (mechano-thermal aspects) but also to contaminate the contact between wheel and rail by particles of brake shoes that can electrically isolate it (mechanical-electrical aspects). The method for locating the trains, whose principle is the electrical conduction between wheel and rail, is then compromised.These issues are governed by the different contacts (wheel/rail, wheel/shoes, ...) that fit into the concept of tribological triplets. These are composed of the bodies in contact (first bodies), the interface (third body) and the mechanism that keeps them in contact. In order to understand the phenomena occurring within the contacts, a local multi-physics analysis and a decoupling of the parameters (mechanical, thermal, electrical) are necessary. However, this is difficult to establish experimentally, numerical modeling by discrete elements method is then relevant for these needs.The dynamic flow of a third body consisting of braking particles and the degradation of a real braking material (following imaging methods) are modeled. The results obtained made it possible to understand the competitions existing between physical parameters on the one hand (mechanical, electrical, thermal) and scale parameters on the other hand (local, global). These competitions tend to minimize the electrical resistance when the constituents are in adequate proportion (better electrical conduction between wheel and rail) but also to balance the flows of the tribological track, which leads to protect the materials (controlled wear). In addition, the numerical analyzes made it possible to highlight new parameters related to "spreading" of the third body and to apprehend the key points making it possible to approach a real contact.
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Eric Chapteuil. Matériaux numériques tribologiques pour un système de freinage ferroviaire. Mécanique des structures [physics.class-ph]. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSEI112⟩. ⟨tel-02187317⟩

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