Entanglement in high dimensional quantum systems

Abstract : Entanglement detection is crucial and a necessity in the context of quantum information and quantum computation. This important task has proved to be quite hard for quantum systems of dimensions higher than 2×3, in which case, there exists well established necessary and sufficient conditions like Peres-Horodecki criterion.To tackle this challenge for bipartite systems, we introduce a mathematical framework to reduce the problem to entanglement in a two qubit system. This is done by mapping each subsystem locally into a qubit without increasing entanglement. The mapping is expressed in terms of expectation values of three arbitrary operators in the original state. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such mapping to be valid from physical point of view, providing thence a versatile tool for dimension reduction in various applications.Our main use of this formalism is as a gate way to derive entanglement criteria for bipartite or multi-partite systemas based on existing ones derived for qubit systems. By mapping each subsystem locally into a qubit, applying entanglement criteria known for qubits on the resulting state automatically gives us entanglement criteria in terms of the chosen operators used to implement the mapping.For the multi-partite case, we focus on spin squeezing inequalities for qubits to derive entanglement criteria for general systems. However, when applying our formalism to this case, an interesting situation arises where one is able to obtain coherent superposition of multi-partite qubit states with different particle number. Hence, to derive better entanglement criteria, we had to consider quantum and/or classical fluctuationsthat may be exhibited by the particle number operator. We derive generalized form of Sørensen-Mølmer’s criterion and of spin squeezing inequalities for fluctuating particle number in terms of arbitrary collective operators. We applied our results to study entanglement in a system of ultra-cold Chromium atoms with spin s = 3 trapped in a bi-dimensional optical lattice incollaboration with Quantum Dipolar Gazes team in Laboratoire de Physique de Laser at Paris Nord 13 university. We showed, in a numerical simulation, that our generalized inequalities are able to detect entanglement in their system using collective operators. Moreover, we show that such observables can be measured using available techniques.
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Ibrahim Saideh. Entanglement in high dimensional quantum systems. Quantum Physics [quant-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS198⟩. ⟨tel-02187211⟩

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