Etude anatomique et biomécanique du ligament antérolatéral ; implication dans sa reconstruction chirurgicale

Abstract : Many clinical studies have shown that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomical reconstruction do not allow a perfect control of anterolateral rotational instability (ALRI). This clinical postulate led to rediscovery of the anterolateral ligament (ALL). However ALL surgical reconstruction are still approximate, due to a lack of knowledge.Initially, we have studied cadaveric knees, using our own non-extensive and reproducible dissection protocol. With tis approach, we were able to define the anatomical parameters relevant to obtaining an effective ALL reconstruction. Then, we performed an histological study in order to confirm ALL ligamentary structure.In a second part, we have developed and validated a kinematic analysis protocol using a three-dimensional optoelectronic system to study the ALL role on the knee stability. Through an analysis of ALL length variations during motion and ALL section consequences, we determined the ALL capacity on ALRI control.In a third part, we were able to define, regarding our previous results, biomechanical and anatomical imperatives to perform an anatomic ALL reconstruction. In order to evaluate this technique, we analyzed and compared knee kinematics after ALL reconstruction and after lateral extra-articular tenodesis on cadaveric knees.Lastly, various clinical (laximeter, triaxial accelerometer) and morphological (MRI, ultrasound) systems were analyzed to evaluate their relevance in ALL tear diagnosis, in order to improve ALL reconstruction indications.In conclusion, this work gives a global view of ALL, from anatomical description and biomechanical function to surgical reconstruction.
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Thomas Néri. Etude anatomique et biomécanique du ligament antérolatéral ; implication dans sa reconstruction chirurgicale. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSES033⟩. ⟨tel-02186339⟩

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