Heidegger et la déconstruction de la métaphysique

Abstract : The aim of this work is to propose an interpretation of Heidegger’s concept of deconstruction. Our interpretation is based on three thesis: 1) the deconstruction is one of the three elements of Heidegger’s phenomenological method with the reduction and the construction, these three elements being indissociable from each other. 2) These three elements allow us to understand the most general strategy of Heidegger’s thought constitution. 3) The deconstruction of metaphysics is the heideggerian version of the critique of reason. In the first part, the reduction is defined as an operation of questioning the naturalized presuppositions of thought, the metaphysical concept of being is the naturalized presupposition which is the object of Heidegger’s reduction. In the second part, the construction is defined as a genealogy of the naturalized presuppositions of the whole history of metaphysics. The construction allows us to identify two definitions of metaphysics in Heidegger’s thought: 1) as an hegemonic and normative understanding of the basic concepts of the West: being, truth, thought, language and man. 2) As an onto-theology. In the third and last part, the deconstruction is defined as a double operation. On the one hand, the negative operation of circumscription of metaphysics’ limits, on the other hand, the positive operation which consists in the proposition of a new way of thinking the basic concepts of metaphysics.
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Felipe Shimabukuro. Heidegger et la déconstruction de la métaphysique. Philosophie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PA01H229⟩. ⟨tel-02186133⟩

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