La compensation écologique : du principe de non perte nette de biodiversité à son opérationnalisation - analyse de l'action collective

Abstract : In France, the objective of ecological compensation for residual impacts on biodiversity is to achieve no net loss of biodiversity. A normative framework setting out about ten principles theoretically makes it possible to achieve this objective.We are therefore studying the implementation of biodiversity offset through three High Speed Railway projects. We analyze the actor's game around this implementation through the theories of collective action, and in particular the analytical framework of Translation proposed by M. Callon. This first analysis allows us to understand how biodiversity offset is a socio-technical object. We highlight that many actors with diverging stakes are mobilizing to implement ecological compensation. We show that there is a tension between the mobilization of actors and ecological requirements, these two aspects are not always compatible. The duration of the environmental services specifications and the associated retribution of landowners, who set-up biodiversity offset specification, is decisive for both human and non-human (biodiversity) mobilization. We then question the temporal spatial effects of collective action and its ability to achieve a net loss of biodiversity. We show that the measures could not be effective before the impacts began. Land management in France seems for the moment to be difficult to reconcile with the implementation of unanticipated biodiversity offset at a very early stage. We show that the majority of biodiversity offset sites are small in size, although larger areas seem more virtuous for biodiversity. Finally, we show that the sustainability of biodiversity offset measures can be assessed at different levels depending on (i) the type of land control (acquisition, agreement); (ii) biodiversity offset contracts (duration, content of the latter - sanctions in the event of failure to comply with obligations influence the maintenance of the measures); (iii) the management of the renewal of these contracts; (iv) the vocation of the owners of the sites (a public or private construction company does not initially have the role of conserving biodiversity, whereas an environmental NGO has the vocation); (v) the sustainability of the structures and assurances as to the future of the biodiversity offset measures sites in the event of bankruptcy; (vi) the monitoring and control of the implementation.
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Julie Lombard Latune. La compensation écologique : du principe de non perte nette de biodiversité à son opérationnalisation - analyse de l'action collective. Géographie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLA040⟩. ⟨tel-02185082⟩

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