Bases génétiques de la réponse à l'infection par Flavobacterium psychrophilum chez la truite arc-en-ciel : approche expérimentale et perspectives en sélection

Abstract : Health management and disease control are of both major economic and environmental concerns for animal production systems. Bacterial diseases are responsible for important economic losses in fish farming. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD), affects particularly rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and is found worldwide where salmonids are raised. As no commercial vaccine is available at the moment, the only way to fight BCWD remains through the use of antibiotic treatments. In a context of growing antibiotic resistance threat, additional methods to tackle fish disease are highly needed. Improving the natural host defense mechanisms against infectious pathogens through selective breeding is one of the priorities for French trout farmers. Moderate heritabilities were estimated for resistance against BCWD, indicating that selective breeding is a promising approach to improve trout defense mechanisms against F. psychrophilum. In order to implement disease resistance in French breeding schemes, we need to better understand the genetic determinism of this trait.In this context, the objective of this PhD is to study genetic determinism of different components of trout response to different infection protocols with F. psychrophilum using a QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) mapping approach.To do so we used three experimental crosses between isogenic lines of trout with contrasting susceptibility. Finally, a study on a commercial line under selection in a French breeding company was performed after a natural disease outbreak to validate the interest of QTL previously detected.In this study, we showed that an important number of interacting QTL controls rainbow trout response to infection with F. psychrophilum. Our results suggest that different components of response to infection (resistance, endurance, resilience, bacterial load) might be controlled by different genetic determinisms. We also showed that different infection protocols trigger different immune mechanisms that may be specific to the route of entry of the pathogen. This study paves the way toward a better understanding of underlying immune mechanisms of rainbow trout response to F. psychrophilum. Finally, this study is the first step toward implementing genomic selection of resistance to BCWD in French rainbow trout population.
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Clémence Fraslin. Bases génétiques de la réponse à l'infection par Flavobacterium psychrophilum chez la truite arc-en-ciel : approche expérimentale et perspectives en sélection. Génétique animale. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLA038⟩. ⟨tel-02185038⟩

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